This is default featured slide 1 title
This is default featured slide 2 title
This is default featured slide 3 title
This is default featured slide 4 title
This is default featured slide 5 title

How to modify your Maruti Swift with cool accessories

Maruti Swift is undoubtedly a great car in terms of performance. But as you might have already found out, it focuses more on performance then on design. Of course, the car’s design is sleek and simple, without looking in any way bad. It’s just that it doesn’t particularly sparkle through its design. The good part, on the other hand, is that due to the simple design, the car can be easily modified by adding accessories. Think of it like it’s a blank canvas- the simpler the merrier.

As long as you get a very good performance and fuel economy, the looks are less important, especially if you can modify these afterwards just by adding some cool accessories.

So, if you own a Maruti Swift or you plan on purchasing one let’s see what are the products that can change the way in which your car looks in no time.

Side note: if you’re on a budget, stay away from repainting plans and generally anything that involves taking your car to a car service center. Focus on accessories that you can mount yourself or that request a very little effort (and cost) to be mounted in a car service center.

Led lights

If you don’t particularly enjoy the bulb lighting that comes with your car, you can always modify that with very little effort.

The best solution is replacing the fabric lights with Cheap Car LED lights. Not only do the LED lights have practical benefits such as a reduced power consumption and longer resistance, but they can also give your car a very stylish look.

Something so small as LED lights can make such a huge difference when it comes to your Maruti Swift’s looks.

You can purchase LED lights from starting with $2.

Seat covers

The seat covers can make a real design difference. Depending on what kind of seat covers you choose, you can change your car’s look completely, giving it a new feeling.

When choosing seat covers make sure you take into consideration the practical aspects as well. For example, if you live into a very warm climate, it is not advisable to purchase a leather seat covers set, as these will heat up in the sun. Instead, you can opt for towel seat covers, which can look just as stylish as the leather ones.

Car mats

A slightly more subtle car accessory, the car mats can still be a great plus to your Maruti Swift’s look. Make sure you choose some solid car mats, as besides the aesthetic purpose, the car mats really have to protect your car’s interior. Having car mats can seriously prevent damage and will totally keep your car clean and in a good shape for longer.

Side beading

Exterior accessories can make a real difference to the overall car’s look. Side beadings can add a plus of coolness to your Maruti Swift. Keep in mind that small details make the difference.

While these side beadings have a clear design purpose, their original purpose is very practical. Owning side beadings will protect your car for future scratches- it always happens that you accidentally hit your car’s door to another object and you get it scratched. But the side beadings will act like a protective layer between the car door and the harmful object.

Bumper Protector

Just like the side beading, the bumper protector’s purpose is to protect your car from scratches, only that the latest will prevent the scratches resulted from parking.

As well, these little pieces of rubber can bring a plus of stylish design to your Maruti Swift.

Mud Flaps

The last one from the car protector series is the Mud Flaps. These attach to your car right near the tire, preventing mud to pile up under your car.

Usually these are made out of plastic, but you might find some made out of metal as well. Besides its very practical purpose, these can as well help improving the design of your car. Make sure you look thoroughly before purchasing a set of Mud Flaps, as you could actually find some really stylish ones.

Clear Fog Light Lamp

While all the other cool car accessories listed here are simply to mount yourself, the clear fog light lamp request professional installation- therefore you’ll have to take your Maruti Swift to the car service.

Double lamps might make your car look badass but let’s not forget the tremendous importance of the fog light lamps. These can be very helpful in bad weather conditions, making driving in these situations a lot mot safer.


Purposed purely for improving the car’s design, stickers can make your Maruti Swift look really unique. Using stickers you can obtain the same effects such as from getting your car professionally painted at the service. You can choose from a large variety of stickers, starting with simple, 2D stickers, 3D stickers, small, delicate ones or large, aggressive ones.

The Difference Between Remanufactured, Rebuilt and Second-hand Engines

After-market car engines can be categorised into three types—rebuilt, reconditioned and second-hand ones. Many are unaware of the difference between these engines; and, thus, in this post, we are explaining these three categories in brief to the confused lot.

First, let us start with explaining reconditioned engines

Simply put, a reconditioned engine is basically a batteredengine that is re-engineered to perform like a new one. That’s the simplest definition (without being simplistic). The process of having a reconditioned engine is relatively simple; we have broken the process into a set of steps that include:

  • Sourcing defected engines from a heap of scraps (commonly found in an automotive junkyard)
  • Finding defects in the sourced engine
  • Dismantling the engine
  • Machining it accurately
  • Getting new parts
  • Assembling each of the new parts in the machined engine
  • Dyno testing of the newly assembled engine
  • Installing the reconditioned engine

The advantages

The benefits of a reconditioned engine are as follows:

  • Having extended warranty
  • Ensuring long service life
  • Getting the new performance at economical rates

Now, if that is a reconditioned engine, what is a rebuilt engine?

In its previous life, a rebuilt engine was an aged (and mostly overused) engine. (All its parts were worn out.) However, the old engine will get the tag of getting ‘rebuilt’ once all its worn-out parts are replaced by second-hand ones (that are in mint condition). The process of rebuilding an engine consists of:

  • Sourcing the engine from a scrapyard
  • Dismantling the sourced old engine
  • Finding defects
  • Getting the parts that will replace the defected ones
  • Inspecting the new parts once again
  • Assembling all the parts
  • Painting the engine

And, now, there is a rebuilt engine waiting to be gunned.

The advantages

The benefits of having a rebuilt engine are as follows:

  • The driver/car owner can rest assured of the engine’s reliable performance.
  • Get an engine that is as good as a new one and is available at rock-bottom prices.
  • Such engines, by and large, come with a warranty.

What is a second-hand engine?

This category is the simplest to explain. (And many know about it, too.) A second-hand engine is plucked out of a car and is fitted inside another car (having the same model.) The process of getting a second-hand engine comprises:

  • Sourcing the engine from a vehicle
  • Dismantling the engine for testing parts
  • Installing the engine
  • Fitting ancillaries

The advantages

  • This is the cheapest engine if replacing an engine is in the cards.
  • Such engines are simple to source.

Because of these reasons, many prefer buying rebuilt, reconditioned or second-handMercedes engines for sale; because a new one will cost a small fortune.

Hot Car DVD Player for 1999-2004 Jeep Grand Cherokee with a big Discount

A cool car should need a cool car DVD player.Now,I’ll introduce a hot car DVD player for you!

A specially made unit for 1999-2004 Jeep Grand Cherokee. It adopts Win CE 6.0 system with built-in GPS. It almost has all the main functions of car DVDs nowadays, such as DVD playback, BT hansfree, HD Digital Touchscreen, IPOD ready, original steering wheel control match, mini USB Interface and 1 SD slot and backup camera input! It has dual zone function by which you can enjoy the music while navi. This will no doutedly be a cool unit to your driving.

In fact,this machine can be installed not only on the car of 1999-2004 Jeep Grand Cherokee.I have arranged them,it is special for:   1999-2004 Jeep Grand Cherokee 2003-2005 Jeep Wrangler 2002-2007 Jeep Liberty   2002-2004 Chrysler 300M 2003-2005 Chrysler PT Cruiser 2002-2006 Chrysler Sebring 2002-2004 Chrysler Concorde 2004-2007 Chrysler Town & Country 2002-2004 Dodge Dakota 2004-2005 Dodge 1500 Pickup 2004-2005 Dodge 2500 Pickup 2004-2005 Dodge 3500 Pickup 2004-2005 Dodge Neon  2004-2006 Dodge Stratus 2002-2004 Dodge Intrepid 2004-2007 Dodge Caravan 2005-2006 Dodge Viper 2002-2006 Dodge RAM     It’s time to tell its great functions.

  • With special wire harness, you do not need to cut any wire of your car. it’s easy to install.
  • Built-in GPS Navigation receiver System, run on Win CE6.0.
  • Dual Zone: you can enjoy music while navigation.
  • 4.3″ Digital High Definition 800*480 Touchscreen
  • The color of button light: Green
  • Built-in Radio (AM FM RDS)
  • Built-in Bluetooth technology
  • Support iPod Control, you can control iPod on the DVD screen
  • Support steering wheel control.
  • Support Auto rearview camera in
  • With Video/Audio/Aux input and output ports

Kindly Reminder:

There are 2 kinds of wire harnesses for this device as the photos showed above. If your car is 1999-2001 JEEP, you need to choose the wire harness with 2 ports, the 2002 onwards JEEP need to choose wire harness with 1 port. So tell us which one you want. Or we will send the one-port power cable by default.

General rules for placing wheels on cars

When selecting wheels and tires for your vehicle that do not normally come stock, you will
need some information before proceeding. The first information that you’ll need is the stock wheel size and tire size, bolt pattern, offset, and overall diameter. All of this information is available online at We have spent countless hours gathering all of this information to make this information easily accessible. Another great source of information is google and especially forums related to your vehicle.

The following are definitons of the items that you’ll need to obtain.

Diameter: “Distance between the bead seats (for the tire), as measured in the plane of the rim and through the axis of the hub which is or will be attached, or which is integral with the rim.”

Width: “Separation distance between opposed rim flanges. The flange-to-flange width of a rim should be a minimum of three-quarters of the tire section width. And the maximum rim width should be equal to the width of the tire thread.”

Bolt Pattern: “The bolt pattern is the number of lug nuts or wheel studs on the wheel hub. As the bolts are most often evenly spaced, the number of bolts determines the pattern. Compact cars may have four bolts. Most United States passenger cars have five bolts. Pickup trucks and large SUVs can have as many as six or eight.”

First Choice Wheels and Tires Mounted SetBolt Circle: “The bolt circle is the notional circle determined by the positions of the bolts. The center of every bolt lies on the circumference of the bolt circle. The important measurement is the bolt circle diameter (BCD), also called the pitch circle diameter (PCD)
The BCD may be expressed in millimeters or inches, and is usually given with the number of bolts. For example, a 1974 MG B has a 4/4.5 inch (4/114.3 mm) wheel hub, meaning it has a 4-bolt pattern with a 4.5 inch (114.3 mm) bolt circle diameter.

The most common BCD values are 100 mm (3.94 inches) and 4.5 inches (114.3 mm). Many old British cars use 4 x 4”

Determining the bolt circle: “For a 4- or 6-bolt wheel, this measurement is merely the distance between the center of two diametrically opposite bolts. In the 4-bolt picture to the right, this would be the distance between holes #1 and #4, for example.

Some basic geometry is needed to find the center of a 5-bolt pattern. In practice, the BCD can be found by multiplying the center distance between any two adjacent holes by 1.701.

The easiest way to calculate bolt circle is to take callipers and measure the hole size in the centre of the wheel (note this dimension). Next measure the distance between the edge of the centre hole and the centre of one stud. Double this measurement and add it to the first. Job done! This method works with any number of studs.”

First Choice Wheels and Tires Mickey Thompson TiresOffset: “The offset, measured in millimeters, can be negative or positive, and is the distance from the hub-mounting surface to the rim’s true centerline. A positive offset means the hub-mounting surface is closer to the outside edge of the wheel, i.e. the wheel wraps around the hub and brake hardware more deeply; a negative offset means the hub-mounting surface is closer to the inside edge of the wheel and wheel sticks outwards more than inwards.

When selecting aftermarket wheels, a wheel with too little positive offset will be closer to edge of the fender, and one with too much positive offset will tuck inside the fender and be closer to the suspension components. Wheel width, offset and tire size all determine the way a particular wheel/tire combination will work on a given car. Offset also affects the scrub radius of the steering and it is advisable to stay within the limits allowed by the vehicle manufacturer. Because wheel offset changes the lever-arm length between the center of the tire and the centerline of the steering knuckle, the way bumps, road imperfections and acceleration and braking forces are translated to steering torques (bump-steer, torque-steer, etc.) will change depending on wheel offset. Likewise, the wheel bearings will see increased thrust loads if the wheel centerline is moved away from the bearing centerline. In other words using the stock wheel offset number as the starting point, a lower off set number makes the wheel stick out more and a with higher number it sticks out less. (Lower is out more, higher is in more.)”

Compare Residual Values before Purchasing your Used BMW

Understanding the residual value of used cars can help you make buying decisions that can save you a great deal of money down the road. The residual value is the percentage of the manufacturer’s original value that a car retains after ownership.

If a particular model of used BMW has a lower residual value than another used BMW model, it may be a sign that there are issues that negatively impact a particular model. The residual value is also based on the level of demand for a particular vehicle, offering insight into how easily you’ll be able to sell it.

Residual values are published every year and very useful for used luxury car shoppers to determine the approximate value of particular models. The residual value equation can’t consider every factor in determining how well a car will hold its value. For example, an unexpected dive in manufacturer popularity could greatly reduce demand for a particular vehicle although the quality and reliability are still strong.

With a little research about the residual value of various BMW models, you can learn to save yourself headache during ownership as well as money when it’s time to resell. If you’re in the market for a used BMW, refer to this guide to see how these used luxury cars stack up in terms of residual value.

How today’s used BMW models stacked up against other luxury cars in 2005 according to Automotive Lease Guide

Among used luxury cars, the BMW 330 series won the #2 slot in terms of highest residual value (62%). This means that those selling a used BMW 330 will get a higher percentage of the original purchase price than those who purchased just about any other make or model of luxury car. The buyer of the used BMW 330 receives not only a car more likely to retain a high residual value, but a car that holds an overall higher combined value in terms of style and general ownership happiness.

The Mercedes held 3 spots in the top ten with its CLK class (#1 spot at 65%), the E Class (62%), and the SL Class (61%). Other models in the top 10 were the Volvo XC90 (62%), the Infinity G35 (61%), the Land Rover LR3 (61%), the Acura MDX (60%), the Lexus ES 330 (60%), and the Lexus GX 470 (60%). Any of these used luxury cars is a great buy in terms of a high resale value. The lowest ranking car overall in terms of residual value in 2005 was the Dodge Neon with a 26.1% residual value.

How 2005 used BMW’s ranked according to Kelley Blue Book

In a recent study published by Kelly Blue book called the “Kelley Blue Book of Residual Values,” experts measured the actual value that various cars held over time. In this study, the used BMW 5-Series won a top spot for retained value. Leading with 1st place for its ability to retain value was the BMW Mini Cooper. Kelley Blue Book also forecasted that used BMW models across the board will retain their value best over the next 5 years.

Almost all of the top slots in the overall survey were awarded to luxury vehicles. No matter which type of use luxury car you choose, it’s much more likely to retain its value than a non-luxury vehicle. If you’re looking for a used luxury car with top grades, the used BMW 330 series, 5-Series, and Mini Cooper are winning choices.

Father’s Day Gifs Ideas for 2010

Give Dad something cool this Father’s Day !

looking around the array of men’s gifts at department stores would leave you with the impression that every male is not only in need of a used tie or gadget, but a golf fanatic. On the contrary, men’s passions are diverse.Therefor how to choose a special father’s gift
,which is a problem that confused here we made a tribute to the Fathers of the world with a great compilation of Father’s Day gift ideas including different cool gadgets, Car accessories, fun toys and other great finds for you to choose from.

Step 1
Many men love playing Foosball, and this nifty little game is probably the world’s smallest version. It may not be small enough to fit in your pocket, but it could still be convenient enough to take on a travel trip with the family.


Step 2
Feed his sweet tooth with a bag of his favourite childhood sweet. See’s Sweet ( has a variety of tasty gifts that will tempt someone off the Atkins plan. Alternatively, pick up a savory treat like smoked salmon or a 20-lb. can of pistachios from Costco.

Step 3

Those Fathers who are very protective of their sons and daughter would take this spy gadget any day. It is a mini spy cam that is embedded into a Tie, allowing anyone to record with a remote control without individuals even noticing.


Step 4
Who doesn’t love beer? Ok, let me rephrase that…what Father doesn’t love beer? This mini Heineken Beer keg is not filled with alcohol but with wiring and tech that could allow the musical Fathers a cool way to stay off the bottle and stick to another love…Music.


Step 5
Add more entertainment to his automobile. The newest car mp3 player is combined with a car charging holder and a MP3 player that can be used independently as a common player. Connect the car charging holder to the MP3 player with the USB cable and the player can be charged in the car. The supper true color, the brilliant 2.4″ LCD will display video clearly and fluently, which make your rest along the journey more colorful.

Step 6
Zero in on an enduring hobby or new interest, then shop for gear & accessories he doesn’t have yet. Is he a science or computer buff, a automobile or airplane fanatic, a fisherman, a cook, a gardener or basketball fan? Shop, an auto supply store, Williams-Sonoma or Sur La Table. Visit a local nursery or buy a couple of tickets to a ballgame.

Step 7
Do something fun together. Plan a fishing or camping trip, or even a helicopter ride. Or buy tickets & popcorn, & let him pick the film.

Step 8
Tap in to a nostalgic moment or time you shared. If you have travelled together, receive a coffee-table book on a place you visited that evokes a great adventure.

Step 9
Go to buy a car parking sensor for them ,This Parking Sensor System helps the fatrher to get rid of those costly collisions that happen inevitably. Once installed, It will automatically turns on when reversing and parking. For the display unit with built-in buzzer, Parking Sensor System gives forth audible beeps if an object is detected while backing up.

Give him the world. Discover a pretty wall map, atlas or globe at National Or appeal to a secret passion: a map of Civil War battlefields, for example, is $9.95.

Cool Computer Accessories – USB Hubs with Many Ports

There are too many USB hubs at umibuy online store, providing by China wholesalers, with high-quality, low price, beautiful shaped, and cartoon design. You can choose some for your computer. Now, I want to recommend some USB hubs which are the hottest sales at Computer Accessories Online Store

1. Mouse Shaped USB 2.0 Hub Bar 4-Port Black

This is a mouse shaped USB hubs bar with 4 ports. The design is special, and is portable for travel. Plug and play USB 2.0 4-port hub. It can connect up to 4 USB 2.0 devices, and supports data transfer rate of up to 480 Mbps. Individual port over-current / surge protection. It is very cheap, just $9.99.

2. High Speed 4-Port USB 2.0 Hub with Switch

This is a 4-Port USB hub with switch; it has high speed hub, Plug and play USB 2.0 4-port hub. It connects up to 2 devices without a power adapter, and supports data transfer rate of up to 480 Mbps. Individual port over-current / surge protection. No driver installation required. It has a power LED. The price is $5.30

3. Butterfly Shape High Speed 4 Ports USB Hub for PC Laptop Notebook

Butterfly Shape High Speed 4 Ports USB Hub should be the easiest and fastest way to connect all your USB devices to PC or laptops. 4 high-speed ports can connect to an almost limitless number of USB devices including modems, scanners, printers, PC cameras, digital cameras, keyboards, etc. Each port handles up to 480Mbps. Plug & play and Hot Swapping. Plug this hub into just one of your computers USB ports and you’ll add 4 extra USB ports to your computer. With beautiful butterfly shape, it is specially designed for space-saving function and multi-connection convenience. This powerful USB hub is only $5.00

4. White Cartoon Cow Shape High Speed USB 4 Port Hub

This 4 port USB hub should be the easiest and fastest way to connect all your USB devices to PC, laptops. Add more USB peripherals to your PC! It’s easy with this ultra slim 4-port USB 2.0 hub! Each port handles up to 480Mbps. Its USB 2.0 interface provides data transfer rates up to 480 Mbps and its slim portable design makes it easy to take with you anywhere! Hook up useful devices such as scanners, printers, cameras, and more! This 4-port USB 2.0 slim hub can be yours today! 4 high-speed ports can connect to an almost limitless number of USB devices including modems, scanners, printers, PC cameras, digital cameras, keyboards, etc. it is specially designed for space-saving function and multi-connection convenience. Plug & play and Hot Swapping, plug this hub into just one of your computers USB ports and you’ll add 4 extra USB ports to your computer. The price is also $5.00.

5. Rabbit High Speed 4 Ports USB Hub Blue

Rabbit High Speed 4 Ports USB Hub allows you to conveniently connect your notebook, PC or Mac to USB peripherals. This high-speed hub allows you to add multiple high-performance USB 2.0 peripherals to your notebook, PC or Mac. The Hub comes with cute rabbit shape, its light-weight and exquisite design makes it easy to take anywhere. It is compatible with USB 1.1 and USB 2.0. Added 4 USB Hi-Speed Ports which support Data transfer rate at 1.5/12/480 Mbps. It is portable, easy to carry. Plug & Play for easy installation. It is just $5.10.

In the china wholesale electronics market, you can find these USB hubs everywhere. But if you will buy these gadgets from, you will enjoy lowest wholesale price with free shipping, fast delivery.

Driving Forces of India’s Automotive and Auto Parts Sector

The automotive sector is one of India’s largest and fastest growing manufacturing sectors. With a turnover of US$13 B, the automobile sector employs about 0.45 million people directly and 10 million people indirectly, including after-sales and servicing networks.

This ranked India as the 11th largest passenger car producer in the world. In the category of motorcycles and scooters, India is ranked 1st and 2nd respectively. With India increasingly liberalizing its market place, many new joint ventures evolved, resulting in close to 2 dozen global auto manufacturers setting up shop in India

The auto component segment is equally robust, supplying the entire range of parts required by the domestic automobile industry and currently employs about 250,000 people. Although small by global standards, this segment is growing rapidly as a result of its low costs and rising quality. Sales turnover of parts is estimated to have reached US$8.7 B in 2004/05, 29% higher than the previous year. Noticeably, auto component manufacturers supply to two kinds of buyers – original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and the replacement market. Over 300 small and medium companies directly service the OEMs assembling vehicles in India. Downstream, close to 5,000 other micro firms are working for these Tier 1 suppliers, as well as for the replacement market

The sector can be segmented into 2. One is the automobile segment. The other is the auto parts segment. The key manufacturing areas for these 2 segments are well spread across the country.

The growth of India’s automotive sector is driven by the key forces below:


Automotive related imports are largely in auto parts, accounting for a lion’s share of 85%. These imports will feed the manufacturing plants, producing vehicles for domestic market as well as export market.

As the demand from the domestic market increases with rising affluence, production will increase in tandem, hence requiring more imports of parts, especially those of higher precision which still cannot be done in India. Global players in India still need to import fairly large amount of auto parts for their automobile assembly as quality and technological standards of auto parts sourced from within India may not meet their high standards. The expected Increase in exports of India-made vehicles will also contribute to import growth of auto parts.


Automotive related exports expanded rapidly in recent years. Automobile exports grew at a compound annual growth rate of 46% between 2001 and 2006. Export share of production increased from 3% in 2001 to 8% in 2006. The growth is boosted by these several factors such as India’s cost competitiveness in terms of labor and raw material; established manufacturing base; economies of scale due to domestic market; potential to harness global brand image of the parent company, as well as the global hub policy for small cars like Hyundai, Suzuki, etc
Most automotive exports go to developing countries in Asia, where inexpensive cars can find a market. Egypt, Kenya and Nigeria are important destinations for India’s automotive exports. More recently, as the quality and technology of India-made automobiles have improved and met stringent requirement of the international market, some cars have found buyers even in Western Europe.

Similarly for auto parts, exports have been growing at a compound annual growth rate of 25% over 2000-2005. Share of exports in total production increased to 18% in 2005 from 10% in 1997. Foreign carmakers in rich countries are increasingly turning to India for parts, as low costs, relatively good technology base and access to cheap raw material make India highly competitive in its auto parts exports.

The main export markets are the USA, Germany, Japan, Sweden, the UK and Italy. Asia, Africa and the Middle East together take up 44% of India’s auto part exports.

Regulatory/Government efforts

Government efforts and regulatory frameworks are also key driving forces to the automotive industry in India. Currently, 100% foreign direct investment in the automotive industry, with no mandatory minimum level of investment is allowed. No local tie up is necessary since the sector has already been fully de-licensed and deregulated. This provides a strong impetus for global auto players to set up shop in India. Further, excise duty and custom taxes have also been kept competitive in order to make participation in the automotive industry conducive

On top of these, an Automotive Mission Plan 2006-2016 is also being drafted to develop the domestic sector, as well as the export market. It aims to develop India into a premier automotive hub. Moving forward, India targets to become one of the top 5 automotive economies by 2025

International Agreements

Trade/economic co-operation agreements between India and the region or other international markets will boost India’s exports of both automobile and parts to the region/international markets. Going forward, the potential agreements are: TVS Group’s plan to invest in Indonesia to manufacture 2-wheeler; FTA between India and ASEAN (negotiation in progress) would also offer opportunities for direct trade and investment between India and ASEAN countries; FTA with countries like China, Korea, Japan, Chile, etc

Know Everything About Used Ford Transit Engines

Has your car befallen by an engine-related problem? If yes, you can consider buying a used engine in case you do not want to shell out thousands of dollars. Getting a used engine for your beloved Ford Transit not only saves your hard-earned money but also promises optimum performance. In this article, we are sharing some factors related with used engines to make you understand how efficient it is.

Used engine, as the name suggests, is an engine that has been repaired using an old block. During the process, all worn out components such as pistons and cylinders, spark plugs, sumps and connecting rods to name just a few of the parts are replaced with new ones. All this is done in order to restore performance as good as new one.

The old engines are taken out from damaged or scrapped cars, and then they are precisely cleaned using latest technology. Afterwards, the faulty components are inspected and replaced with new one, if required. At the last step of the process, the units are tested on certain parameters such as performance, mileage and others in order to determine their capabilities. This is how the process of repairing is done.

If you ask about benefits of using a used engine, it is affordability. Yes, a used engine does not cost you a fortune. This is why, it is said that you can save a thousands of dollars with a used engine.

You can easily get such engines from dealers offering used Ford Transit engines. There are many dealers in London that supply engine for any model of Ford Transit, suiting your budget and requirement. Along with this, these dealers offer ready-to-install engines at affordable price tags. All you have to do is take your car to them, they would inspect your car and the engine closely to suggest you the best possible solution. If required, you can get the faulty engine replaced with a used one immediately on the spot.

In order to get reliable product, you are suggested approaching an automotive dealer who has years of experience in the industry and reputation for offering quality units. You can search online for the names of such dealers. Once you find out the dealer, don’t forget to ask about its customer-centric policies, how it works and what type of engine it offers. This will help you crack the best deal.

So, what are you waiting for? If you are upset with your engine’s performance, get it replaced with a used one right away, and enjoy riding your beloved Ford Transit.

All-in-one Toyota Corolla EX GPS navigation/DVD Player/6.2 inch touchscreen/Bluetooth/TV turner with affordable price

DVD/VCD/CD/MP3/MPEG4/DIVX/CD-R/WMA/JPEG. Auto rear viewing function. Mute at telephone calling. (RGB) touch screen, Graphical User Interface. Build in microphone 1 A/V input(1 video,2 audio),1 A/V output(1 video,4 audio). Card size Full function remote control. Screen angle / Position Memory. ATSC Antenna: If you are from America or Canada, ATSC antenna may suit you perfectly. Browse our External DVB-T&ATSCdirectory to explore more about that. TV Antenna: Unnecessary for you to buy a digital one? How about simply erecting a TV antenna on the back of your car, costing only8USD on specials? However, if you’ve already chosen DVB-T or ATSC, there is absolutely no need for you to install one for your car. Browse our Car TV Antenna with wholesale price, you may find what you need.

iPod control: Got your own iPod and wanna enjoy music in your iPod while driving alone? This iPod control is just what you need. We suggest that you get an iPod holder so that you could control your iPod much easier without being distracted while driving.Back Video: This function allows you to know the back circumstance while rolling back PROVIDING you’ve installed a Backup Camera. In this case, you don’t have to pear through the mirror and run the risk of hitting around. A backup camera is available at$29.99 on our site if bought individually. However, you could save up ONE DOLLAR on that at $28.99 if you buy the backup camera together with a certain GPS system on our site. All you have to do is click on the accessories option card on your GPS page and add that to your cart too. Or you could simply place the two items on one order and inform us. If you are interested in this item , please click here to get more information .

Accessories for Tradecarview Japan Used Cars

If you have been thinking about getting a vehicle from tradecarview Japan’s used car stock, why not add in a few car accessories that will make your car look and feel like new? There are hundreds of accessories out there you can add on to your car, but what we have here are the essentials that will help to make your car have that brand-new look and stay fresh and clean longer.

You may have a secondhand car, but with these accessories, you’ll feel like you just bought it straight from the showroom, and had it detailed from the best auto shops. You can do the installation of these things though, and you won’t have to spend a lot because these are affordable and are also easily available from auto accessories stores. These accessories come with easy-to-follow instructions that you can do yourself.

All-weather mats – these are must-haves, especially if you live in a region that has ever-changing weather. It might be sunny in the morning but come afternoon, the rains may come and make the roads muddy. To keep your car’s flooring clean, use mats that are made of rubber and that have grooves on the underside to keep them in place. The mats are easy to clean—just hose them down with water and hang them out to dry before putting them back in the car.

Seat covers – most units from tradecarview Japan’s used car stock still have their original seat covers fitted. Some of them may have been worn down over the years (or may have retained a certain muggy smell), so it’s best to have new seat covers. You can have seat covers customized according to your preferences—for example, made with a combination of faux leather and Egytian cotton, or made of nylon and cotton cloth.
Car cover – to protect your car from sun, rain, dust, and bird droppings, it would be wise to invest in a good, water-resistant cover. Get one with soft inner lining so the cover won’t scratch the car’s paint.

Air fresheners – if it has been several months since your car has last been in use (it’s been living in a stockyard, so it’s understandable), it may have a muggy smell. It’s easy to make your car smell good by using air fresheners of different styles and scents; picking out the best one you like is fun in itself.

Steering wheel cover – for an improved grip on the steering wheel of your tradecarview Japan used car purchase, a cover will do the trick. It will also protect your hands from a hot steering wheel when your car has been left out in the sun.

Car gadget charger – nowadays, we can never seem to go out without our gadgets such as cellphones, smartphones, and tablets. For persons who rely on these devices for work, it’s important to keep their gadgets charged at all times. A car phone or gadget charger is a necessity, especially when you’re expecting a very important phone call. There are gadget docks that also serve as holders and handsfree devices so you can call and charge your phone at the same time.

Buyers can also invest in security, navigation, and entertainment systems for their vehicles bought from tradecarview Japan’s used car marketplace. The possibilities are really endless, so explore your auto accessories stores now!

A Better Alternative To Trading In Your Car- Sell Used Car Online

Trading in your car may be a good option if you want to get rid of your old vehicle and buy a new one. However a major downside to trading in is that you have to do the deal with car dealer who has the exact car model that you are looking for and that too at a reasonable price.

Instead of getting boxed into this situation, it is far better to consider doing two separate transactions – one for selling for old car and another for buying a new one. Of course, this means you will have to put in some extra work to get good deals on the sale and the purchase transactions but

How to sell used cars – a few handy tips

There are several ways to sell used cars and what’s really great is that you can avail of all the options. You are not limited to choosing just one.

1-    Word of mouth – Just inform family and friends that you are planning on selling your car. Somebody may know a friend or work colleague who is looking for a used car and yours may be exactly what they are looking for. To use an often used cliché, you have nothing to lose and everything to gain.

2-    Place an ad in the local newspaper – Yes, many people still like to thumb through the classified ads in the local newspapers so go ahead and place that ad under the ‘selling used cars’ category. For maximum queries, it is a good idea to place the ad on the weekend when people when more time to go through the newspaper at leisure.

3-    Place an ad on an online car dealer’s website – Today you can find several such sites that make it easier than ever to sell used car online. Some sites may charge you a nominal fee for this facility whereas others are absolutely free. Lots of used car buyers prefer to do their searching online because of the larger selection of cars available and the potential for better deals too.

What you need to do before putting up your car for sale

Doing your homework before selling used car online will ensure that you get a good price for it. The first thing you need to do is to estimate the value of your vehicle. You can do this by browsing through other sites that used car online and compare different models of cars for sale with their listed price. This should give you a better idea of what other car owners are selling their vehicles for and you can price your vehicle accordingly.

Once you’ve determined the approximate value of your car, you are ready to place your ad with your chosen dealer. Some of the details you should include in your ad are the make and model of your vehicle, year of manufacture, its color and engine size and the number of miles it has done. In a few words describe the condition of the car. In describing your car, don’t be tempted to exaggerate. If there is a flaw, be upfront and honest about it. Buyers appreciate an honest seller and it will make the whole experience more pleasant too.

After placing your ad be prepared to answer emails and phone calls from potential buyers and close the deal on a price that is agreeable by both parties.

Major Factors Affecting Your Car Insurance Rates

Unfortunately, if you get into (and report) auto accidents and are frequently stopped by police and issued driving tickets, you’ll be paying much higher auto insurance rates than someone who maintains a clean driving record. Here are a few more ways your auto insurance rates are affected:

Auto insurance quotes are affected by the state you live in

If you live in a state where auto accidents are at an all time high, you’ll more than likely have to pay a higher insurance premium. For example, if you live in California or New York, your auto insurance rates will be much higher than someone who lives in Macon, Georgia. If you have a clean driving record, this may not seem fair. The main reason why car insurance companies charge higher rates in certain states is because their statistics show that they’re much more likely to receive a claim for insurance in those states, and that the average insurance claim size is larger. So, they need to be compensated for the money they spend on paying out insurance settlements and other related car accident fees. Also, if you live in a high-risk area were vandalism and thefts occur, you will more than likely have to pay higher auto insurance rates.

Your family’s driving record can affect your auto insurance rates

If you’re looking for multi-driver car insurance rates, many auto insurance companies offer discounts. It’s important to note that when you purchase car insurance for other people in your family, their driving records will be verified. If you or any of your family members have been in car accidents or have tickets, the insurance rates will rise and you’ll have to pay a higher insurance premium. Additional factors affecting your multi-driver auto insurance rates are number of drivers covered, location of home and its proximity to crime areas, miles driven per year by family member, age of each family member, school grades, credit scores, types of cars, occupations, whether or not the cars are parked in garages or on the street, if the cars have alarms and LoJack tracking devices, age and value of cars, etc.
Shop online for cheap car insurance quotes

The good thing about shopping around for auto insurance rates is that you can compare rates and save more. During your search, first decide what kind of coverage you’ll need for your car insurance policy and then choose the amount of coverage. Then compare each car insurance company’s offering. Every state has a minimum requirement for car insurance coverage but don’t stop there though because car insurance companies highly recommend that drivers avoid purchasing just the bare minimum. If you’re ever in a serious car accident and have only minimum auto insurance coverage, the liability and repairs could be costly, even if the accident isn’t your fault. Take a few minutes more to invest in comparing multiple policies and even speaking with multiple agents. What you’ll learn will save and protect you more in the long run. Selecting the right insurance policy and company is an important decision and should always be treated as such.

What to Consider When Choosing a Cheap Car Rental Company in Sydney

Many of us consider for car rental during a business trip or a holiday trip.

Usually, people stay tensed about the train and bus schedule when they go for a trip. In fact, when you rent a car you can save a lot of money on the costly taxi fares. Obviously, renting a car is more flexible and cost effective option. If you are in Sydney for a business trip or a holiday then you will find here many companies are offering cheap car rental services.  Hence, choosing the best one among them may seem difficult.

Here are a number of vital things to consider when choosing a Cheap Car Rental company in Sydney.

When renting a car, what size vehicle you will need is an important factor to consider. Apparently, it will require having room for your group and their luggage. However, remember that generally the smaller cars are cheaper to hire compare to SUV and other big size cars. Always choose the car according to your need.

Next, you ought to try to find the best car rental deal. Sydney has a number of companies to select from and their rental charges change on a daily basis. Remember that never settle for the first good offer you encounter with. An additional time of investigation may save you a good sum of money. You should also search for promotional codes for online reservations, coupons, and discounts.

Prior to hiring the car for your trip, it’s a good idea to look around and compare the rates first as car hire companies offer different rates. You can simply do this by visiting different car Rental Company’s website. Once you have made up your mind on a particular rental company, you can straight away book your car online at their website. Choose a company that offers well-kept cars and great service for its rates.  Many Cheap Car Rental companies in Sydney offer discounts for their regular customers and during off season. So, look for these offers to save your money.

To make your trip that much better, a good car rental company will have several options for you from the type of vehicle to the options for extra’s available to you, this may be baby seats or satellite navigation systems, the car hire company should have everything available for you. Many car hire companies do have loyalty programs as this will encourage clients to keep coming back.

Finally, before renting a car from a Cheap Car Rental company in Sydney, you should try to find fine printed information on the contract too apart from checking over the car carefully. Otherwise, if anything goes wrong you will be held liable for it. As you do not want to end up paying for something that is beyond your initial budget, so, apart from that, you should also look at all the minute details about rental fees which you generally fail to notice.

Five Signs That Warn You about a Faulty Engine

For a car owner, nothing is more frightful than having a malfunctioning engine, and the problem can worsen if you ignore the signs that your car gives before breaking down. Not every engine-related problem will cost you dearly; some issues—if detected early—will require you replacing a gasket or performing some minor repairing tasks. However, if these issues are not detected in advance, they can cause an engine to be replaced. That is why; we have shared four of the most common signals that a car gives to its owner before going out of kilter.

Warning Lights

If your car is in good working condition, then one by one each of the lights turns off. If they don’t , then it is a sign that there is something wrong. Basically, these lights are connected to sensors that monitor everything about your car. If there is something out of order, the computer tells you about it using these lights. These lights indicate towards problems such as, check oil/oil level low, oil pressure low and check engine. The “check engine” light may point various problems out, including loose screw cap, worn pistons and others. In this case, you call a technician to identify the exact trouble.

Not so smooth driving

Driving should be free of surging, jerking, or stalling. If you find difficulty in maintaining smooth driving, this is pretty strong sign of an engine trouble. The problem could be due to clogged fuel lines, fuel filter and fouled spark plugs. In order to avoid this situation, you should consider oil change and belt replacement at recommended intervals.

Rude Noises

If there is a tapping or popping sound, your car engine is battling with serious problems. This situation may indicate towards detonation within the engine’s cylinders, can result in expensive. Likewise, if you experience a grinding noise while starting your car, it means there is a problem with starter motor. Further, in case you hear grinding or tickling noise from injectors, it is right time to take your car to an experienced technician.

Foul Smells

Any foul smell inside your car may signify oil or coolant leaking from their closed-loop system, or it may be a sign of emission of dangerous exhaust gases, such as carbon monoxide. The smell of burning rubber may indicate towards faulty belts beneath the hood.

These problems can damage your car engine’s to a great extent, which may create an urge to get the entire unit replaced with reconditioned one. There are many online retailers offering reconditioned Fiat Doblo engines, and for other cars at affordable price tags.

Competition Landscape in India’s Automotive and Auto Parts Sector

The automotive sector is one of India’s largest and fastest growing manufacturing sectors. It is ranked the 11th largest passenger car producer in the world. In the category of motorcycles and scooters, India is ranked 1st and 2nd respectively. With India increasingly liberalizing its market place, many new joint ventures evolved, resulting in close to 2 dozen global auto manufacturers setting up shop in India.
2lnbj9i.jpgThe auto component segment is equally robust, supplying the entire range of parts required by the domestic automobile industry and currently employs about 250,000 people. Although small by global standards, this segment is growing rapidly as a result of its low costs and rising quality. Over 300 small and medium companies directly service the OEMs assembling vehicles in India. Downstream, close to 5,000 other micro firms are working for these Tier 1 suppliers, as well as for the replacement market

Competition in India

As a result, competition in India’s automobile and parts sector had been heating up in the recent years. Many global players in the automobile and parts industry have already set up presence in India. Most of them are through tie-ups with dominant local players, while some are done entirely on their own.

In the absence of strong competition in the past, the local car manufacturer Maruti Udyog Ltd (MUL) has virtually dominated the Indian automotive market in the passenger segments since the 1980s. As the automotive manufacturing sector rapidly evolved through the dynamics of open market and deregulation, many new joint ventures (both technical and financial) were formed between local players with leading global manufacturers. In 1982, MUL, then a wholly government-owned company, signed up a collaboration agreement with Suzuki of Japan to establish the volume production of contemporary models. Subsequently, the licensing regime was scrapped in 1993 paving way for 17 new ventures, of which 16 are now manufacturing cars

Since then, there has also been an emergence of new competition for higher value segments of the passenger car market. Hence, local players like MUL also began to face competition from new foreign car makers. Ford entered the mid-range market with the Ikon model in April 1998, a move which was followed by Honda, Mitsubishi, Hyundai, and Daewoo. Other players, Hyundai and Daewoo, have since improved their share of the passenger car market with new models

Market Share in the Automobile Sector
For the 4-wheelers segment, MUL/Suzuki dominates the automotive landscape holding a 33% share of the passenger car market in 2004/05. In the second place is Tata Motors, a local company, commanding 26% share, while Hyundai Motor ranked third with 15% share and the rest split amongst close to 2 dozen other manufacturers.

For the 2-wheelers segment, it remains quite a local dominant game but global players also have obvious presence in the market. Major players in this segment include Bajaj Auto, TVS Suzuki, LML Limited, Hero-Honda Motors, Yamaha Motor India, Kinetic Engineering, Maharashtra Scooters Majestic Auto, Kinetic-Honda Motors, Royal Enfield (India), Scooters (India), Greaves Ltd. Foreign manufacturers also have presence in India through their 100% owned subsidiaries, e.g. Honda Motorcycle, Scooter India Pvt. Ltd. M/s Honda Motor Co., Japan, Yamaha Motor, Japan. The largest player is Hero Honda Motors, accounting for 40% of market share, followed by Bajaj Auto and TVS Motor, which account for 27% and 18% respectively.

Market Share in the Auto parts sector

The auto parts sector in India is highly fragmented and yet to overcome quality related problems. Despite this, India has also managed to attract leading players in the auto parts manufacturing to locate in India. These players include Delphi Systems, Bosch, Visteon, Denso, Johnsons Controls, and TRW Automotive to name a few. As a result of such successful localization of these components, vehicles manufacturers started outsourcing more and more components rather than manufacture in-house. For example, GM expects to source more auto parts a year from India by 2008, increasing to US$1 B from US$120 B in 2007. Hence, local firms are encouraged to develop components and set up facilities. Whenever required, OEMs and these global tier 1 part makers supported through equity participation or technical collaboration etc

Competition in the International Market

Besides the competition observed amongst global players in the domestic India market. India as an automotive manufacturing country is also pitting against other competitors in the international market. In terms of exports of automobile, India is ranked 29th, while China, the other huge automotive factory ranked 17th. For exports of auto parts, India was 26th, while China came in 11th. The top country for exports of automobile and auto parts was Germany.

Auto Parts Warehouse and Parts Train for Automotive Products

Both Auto Parts Warehouse and Parts Train are online stores that offer automotive parts for all types of cars. If you currently work on your car and want to save money, not to mention time, you should check out these online stores to see if they have the parts that you need for your car.

Generic v/s Specific Automotive Products at Auto Parts Warehouse and Parts Train

Many of the parts that are offered at Parts Train are generic parts for any automobile. You can shop for oil, fluids and other items that you would otherwise get at an automotive store. On the other hand, Auto Parts Warehouse is a discount online retailer that focuses more on specific auto parts for your car. Both of these online stores offer a discount when it comes to auto parts, especially when compared with off line stores.

 Getting a Good Deal on Automotive Products at Auto Parts Warehouse and Parts Train

When you purchase auto parts for your car, you have a choice. You can purchase them right from the dealer, or from a retailer that sells auto parts. Often, the prices of the parts are marked up considerably. When you make your purchase from Auto Parts Warehouse, you can save yourself some money. The discount that you can expect to receive is about 40 percent off of the retail price that you would pay if you bought the parts in a parts store, depending on the model and make of the car. Newer car parts cost less than the older car parts.

When it comes to supplies for your car, you can get a good deal at Parts Train. Parts Train also carries auto parts for your car. If you need auto parts for a newer model car, chances are that you will find them at both of these online stores. If the car is older and the parts more rare, you will have a better chance at getting them at Auto Parts Warehouse. Both of these online stores offer products that you can use in the maintenance and cleaning of your car.

Cashing in on Online Coupon Codes

One of the best aspects about dealing with these online auto parts stores is that you can receive an online coupon code for these retailers if you do a coupon code search. You can get up to a 20 percent discount on a coupon for parts when you go to Auto Parts Warehouse and sign up to be part of their mailing list. When you are looking for coupon codes for Parts Train, you can get a 10 percent discount which is good on each purchase. Although Auto Parts Warehouse has more of a discount, Parts Train is cheaper when it comes to overall auto supplies and their discount coupon is good every time you make a purchase.

Charging it at Auto Parts Warehouse and Parts Train

Both Auto Parts Warehouse and Parts Train take charge cards as well as debit cards with charge card logos. If you are looking for auto parts or auto supplies and want to save money as well as the time it would take shopping around for the parts, you can get what you need simply by going online to Auto Parts Warehouse or Parts Train. Be sure to take advantage of the discount code when you make a purchase.

All You Need To Know About Reconditioned Audi Engines

It goes without saying that owning an Audi car is a matter of great pride. Thus, we can understand you how much you love our car. You must be taking utmost care of your car in order to avoid any kind glitches. God forbid, if a major engine-related issue befalls your car, you would have to look for the best solution. In this case, you should consider buying a reconditioned Audi engine.

If you have mouthed “What on earth the term a reconditioned engine is”, you are reading an apt article. This write-up is written to make you understand what a reconditioned engine all about is and why you should select one.

Lets start with the definition.

As the name suggests, reconditioned Audi engines are engines that have been serviced or repaired. These are primarily used to transform your car’s overall performance. The reconditioned engines are generally installed in older cars or second-hand that require some fine-tuning.

As far as process is concerned, the engine undergoes a full-fledged reconditioning process. During the process, the engine is stripped down to its last component to be built again. Here is the step-by-step process:

  • Cleaning through latest technologies such as dry ice, lasers and enzymes
  • Disassembling of engine parts
  • Inspection of all parts to know their working capability
  • Measuring applicable components
  • Replacing worn out with for new ones
  • Restoration of worn out parts using restored using thermal spray and laser deposition.
  • Reassembling engine parts to make a whole unit

Here, what you need to consider is despite the fact that the engine is repaired or serviced; it has all new internal components that are certified by the manufacturer.

Although, a reconditioned offers performance as good as new one, you have to little careful while choosing such engines. While selecting, you have to check out a few general factors including the engine’s make, its mileage and its condition. You ask your dealer to provide information about it.

Here are the benefits of reconditioned Audi engines:

Affordability: A reconditioned Audi engine would not let you spend a small fortune. Simply put it is less expensive than new one.

Performance: A faulty engine is precisely serviced in order to restore its performance. You do not have to compromise on the performance aspect if you choose a reconditioned engine.

You can approach a reputed automotive shop to get more information aboutreconditioned Audi engines and to buy a ready-to-install engine.

World famous auto parts manufacturers have entered China

As the world’s largest multinational companies all entered the car in China, the world’s leading auto parts manufacturers have to invest in plant or plant parts and domestic technical cooperation, and promote China’s auto parts industry, construction and development.

At present, 5,000 auto parts business, there are 1,200 foreign-invested enterprises. This is the news from here at the “Symposium to expand exports of automobiles and parts,” the learned.

The world’s largest multinational nine cars GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler – DaimlerChrysler, Volkswagen, Toyota, Renault – Nissan, PSA Peugeot – Citroën, Honda, BMW have entered China. Volkswagen, General Motors, Citroen and other French investment in China, the order to reduce costs, improve the local level, promote the collaboration of foreign companies to invest in China. In order to complete Shanghai Volkswagen, the German public in supporting global companies to invest more than 100. GM’s investment in China at the beginning, it attracted 44 projects related to automotive spare parts suppliers to invest a total investment of up to 2.23 billion U.S. dollars.
Delphi, Bosch, Eaton, Michelin, the world’s leading automotive components such as large multinational corporations to enter China established the wholly owned, joint venture. The world’s leading auto parts enterprises, almost all of China has established a joint venture or sole proprietorship. The world’s largest auto parts manufacturer?? Delphi Automotive Systems established in China, 13 wholly owned and joint venture, a technology center and a training center, a total investment of more than 400 million U.S. dollars. Annual sales in China nearly five hundred million U.S. dollars, one-third of export products. The world’s second largest auto parts maker Robert Bosch GmbH, established covering all parts of China’s large-scale distribution network, with more than 150 after-sales service station. Visteon in China set up five joint venture, specializing in auto parts. Ranked 4th largest auto parts supplier?? Denso Corporation of Japan in Tianjin, Yantai, Chongqing and other places set up several wholly owned, joint venture.
These large multinational companies to enter China auto parts, brought advanced technology and management, and the overall level of China’s auto parts industry increased, initially with a certain competitive automobile and components manufacturing system, not only meet the domestic market demand, and some of auto parts products have entered the international market for export of Chinese automobile and parts to expand the foundation.

Auto Parts for Merck & Porsche

When you decide to purchase the aftermarket products for you new car consider us, below you will find installation instructions to help you complete the installation. The tools needed and the tools included.

Step 1- Unpack the box you will find the Left and Right side Roof Rail, start with the box marked left, you will find 3 black metal adapters.

You’ll see the Porsche Cayenne Roof Rail, justlook below the adapters the adapter marked with “mR” will be the middle adapter, the other two adapters marked “mL” go at each end.

The black metal adapters’ slides in to the track on the roof of your Cayenne see Red Arrows below.

Start by inserting both “mL” adapters on each end and finally insert the middle adapter, please note that the allen bolt located on the side of the adapter must be facing the inside on the roof so these adapters can only install one way, again the allen head on the side must face on the inside.

Step 2- Now that all 3 adapters are in place, put the roof rail over your adapters and align the roof rail accordingly, the curve of the roof rail must match the roof line, once you have it in the correct position, remove the roof rail and tighten all 3 adapters, there is an allen bolt located on the inside of each adapter simply tighten until the adapter no longer moves. Place the roof rail over the adapters and now tighten the side bolts through the roof rail holes, once all tighten install the 3 plastic caps on each rail, you will notice that there’s 3 different cap sizes, the smallest goes on the front hole, the medium on the middle hole and lastly the largest one on the last rear hole.

AMG Bumper is crafted from heavy-duty materials and made to fit to the border of bumpers. It is designed to match the style of your car and to cover the spaces on the grille and bumper, or fender. Available in different colors to jazz up your car at very economical prices.

Advan- Emotion is a manufacturer of W166 Running Boards. We provide bumper and running boards at best prices. Running boards are appropriate accessories that are added to your vehicle for extending the length of underside the driver and passenger doors. Running boards come with a fitting bolt on feature that allows you to quickly install them onto your vehicle. Install the running board can help the people more comfort to board and it is good for protecting the Automobile body with more luxury look.

3 Reasons to Wear Motorcycle Gloves

Motorcycle gloves, gear and apparel seem like just accessories, not much of a necessity, especially something as minute as motorcycle gloves. Truth be told, motorcycle gloves can be very useful, here’s why.

Reason #1 — No Motorcycle Gloves Equals Wet Palms

Motorcycle gloves seem like a useless accessory, maybe just to look cool, but motorcycle gloves really do serve a purpose. Motorcycle gloves prevent your palms from sweating all over the grips of your handlebars. While they may not prevent them from sweating inside the motorcycle gloves, at least they give you a better grip.

Consider this, you are driving down the highway at 60 or 70 miles per hour and your palms are sweaty and you are not wearing motorcycle gloves, you decide to change lanes. You tighten the hold on the grips and move to adjust your handlebars in the direction of the move. Suddenly, you find your hands slipping off the grips causing you to go careening either into the median and heading into oncoming traffic, or into a ditch. Either way, the simple decision not to wear motorcycle gloves that day, could cost you your life along with the possibility of taking others with you.

Reason #2 — No Motorcycle Gloves means Hand Injuries

From the time a person is very small, the first instinct when falling is to put the hands out in front to brace the fall. It doesn’t change as we get older. When you watch someone falling, even if they are falling backward their hands flail in front of them. When you ride a motorcycle, this doesn’t change. When you see a fall coming, your hands go out in front of you, trying to brace yourself for the fall. Without motorcycle gloves, your hands could get broken, bruised bloodied and even severed from the wrists, depending on how bad the accident it.

For your hands, protect them with motorcycle gloves. Without motorcycle gloves, you could bruise your hands badly or worse making it difficult to ride again. motorcycle gloves seems like a simple solution right from the start.

Reason #3 — No Motorcycle Gloves means Numb Fingers

Anyone who has had cold fingers and tries typing on a computer or doing something with the hands that needs great dexterity knows how hard it is to type or grip something when the hands are cold. This same concept applies to motorcycles. Motorcycle gloves can keep the hands and fingers warm. This seems so obvious, but many people don’t understand the importance of warm hands when your at the controls of such a heavy piece of machinery.

Loss of control of a heavy piece of equipment can mean loss of life. Motorcycle gloves can mean the difference between thinking you hit the cruise control and then quickly slowing in front of a car coming at 70 miles per hour. It can mean not putting on the brakes fast enough because without the motorcycle gloves you can’t feel the amount of pressure on the hand controls. Cold hands mean numb fingers, and numb fingers means an accident waiting to happen. Motorcycle gloves aren’t just to look cool.

Best Ideal Indonesian Family Car, Mobil Keluarga Ideal Terbaik Indonesia

Performance and Power is the present trend in manufacturing industry Best Ideal Indonesian Family Car.

With a steady performance, amazing speed and performance that does not disappoint, Toyota products have been pleased at the heart of Indonesian society and also become the Best Ideal Indonesian Family Car.

The term family car is suitable for the Toyota Kijang. Toyota Kijang is the legend of the family car, especially for lovers of the Best Ideal Indonesian Family Car. Demand to always be the Best Ideal Indonesian Family Car should be followed by the preparation and planning firm. Comfortable driving with Best Ideal Indonesian Family Car (or in Indonesian called Mobil Keluarga Ideal Terbaik Indonesia ) . Starting from the panel completely automated, the quality of the best sound system, comfortable seating space following a broad view of the driver, and share the kinds of advanced features supporting other interior.

His steady performance to also support the status-legendaan of this car. The car is a favorite in its class as a Multi Purpose Vehicle (MPV), which at the same time as the IMV Innovative Products. Demands of the market who want a cheap car satisfactorily answered by Toyota. Toyota continues to contribute to develop the national automotive industry with innovation-innovation for both domestic and international markets. The process of continuous improvement to make this car always be remembered and become the car brand legendaris.Pilihan ideal for the needs of the best and reliable car. Family cars, business cars, sports cars, Toyota make your choice. Commercial cars versatile family who faithfully accompany travel wherever located.

Equipped with the latest trends tweeter speakers and car accessories so cool reference modifications. Modified cars include many things such as engine modifications, body and car stickers will also modify many styles and options. LED Headlamp Elegant and Functional would be the choice of many enthusiasts modifications. Efficient use of fuel for example, is the main focal point of development. Latest car models 2011, becoming a favorite among consumers.

Car Maintenance : Allows your Car to Live Long

Car Maintenance – act to preserve car subsystems (like Engine components, Bearings etc.). Proper and regular maintenance of an automotive is only thing for its user to keep car drivable, comfort and safer to ride.

These are the important parts of a car which we have to repair and change routinely.

  • Engine Oil – Replace after every 3,000 of miles.
  • Air Filter – Change after every 3,000 miles.
  • Brakes and Disc Pads – Change after 15,000 miles.
  • Oil Filter
  • Engine cooling system
  • Boilers
  • Lubricants
  • Belts
  • Air conditioner
  • Shocks

Importance of Car Maintenance :

Car maintenance is important for its durability, performance and to have a safer and easy ride. Routinely waxing and washing helps to maintain appearance of automobiles. It gives us a feel of New Car having Better Performance and also a good experience of driving. It also increase the value of the automotive. All we know the importance of car repairing and maintenance, but we are failing to take care of our automobile. What’s the main cause? Let us discuss.
  • Cost : People are failing to take their vehicle for servicing because of expensive maintenance charges. Some international Car Companies offers servicing in uneven expensive amount.
  • Time : Often, in our life we are stuck in a situation when we get too busy due to which we are unable to take out some time for other important tasks. This is also a major reason behind irregular car maintenance.
  • Indolence : Sometimes, due to ignorance and lack of interest we ignore going to service center. Therefore, Lazy nature is also one of the main cause behind failure in maintaining car.

Important Parts to Inspect regularly :

  • Engine : Engine is a most important part in a car which enables us to drive. For better performance and mileage we have to repair engine regularly. Engine repair includes washing of its parts, lubricating, and changing engine oil.
  • Tires : In a car, tires pay a main role. For a happy ride, repairing of car tires is necessary. Check tire pressure once in a week. Bad tire pressure can cause of tire burst.
  • Oil level : Engine needs oil for its performance. If the engine oil is too low, it can harm engine. But, if we are not changing engine oil routinely, it can siege the engine.
  • Coolant System : Coolant in a car is also important thing, without it a car engine not able to perform well. Coolant system helps to minimize engine heat and avoid engine damage.
  • Brakes Inspection : Brakes are used to slow down the speed of car. For maintaining car we have to check brakes and disc pads annually.
  • Car Battery : Battery power gives start-up to an automobile. So, routinely check for battery power is also mendatory.
  • Wiper blades: Wiper blades help to providing a clear visualization. Check that they are cleaned and sprayed with a fluid.

Car is an important investment. For better performance, good mileage and making car to live long, we need its regular servicing and repairing. So, judge yourself that why automobiles need regular maintenance and repair.

Advantages that you get with used Toyota diesel engines

Engines are the main component of any automotive as it decides the performance and functionality of car. New engines make car owners feel happy and satisfied with a perfect output that suits owners’ driving needs.

On the other hand, an old engine is non-performing, offers consistent problems, and makes  things tough for car owners when they are on road. When it comes to making the car go smooth and offer desired results, old engines need to be repaired or replaced with new ones. If the engine is beyond repair and budget is restricted, then buying a used engine can make a difference.

Check mentioned-below points if you are going to buy used Toyota diesel engines for sale. These points will help you know whether your purchase has any value or not. These points are like advantages that you should check that you can get after purchasing the engine. Let’s discuss them.

  • A used but reconditioned or remanufactured engine burns less fuel. It happens due to the engine’s higher temperature of combustion and greater expansion ratio. The engine also converts over 45% of the fuel energy into mechanical energy.
  • The engine doesn’t have any electrical ignition system (high voltage), and it also offers high reliability and easily adapts to the wet environment.
  • The used engine can function well for a longer time period due to the increased strength of parts used. Diesel fuel has improved lubrication features and is used for these purposes: injector lubrication, injector cooling and injection for combustion.
  • Diesel fuel is safe, does not explode and release high flammable vapors. This way diesel engines are a better option for automotive purposes.
  • The used engine is also fuel efficient as it has performance-enhancing parts that replaced old and exhausted ones.
  • The used engine can face super- or turbo-charging pressure and it gets constrained only by the strength of engine components.
  • The used engine emits minimal carbon monoxide content of the exhaust.

If you find all mentioned-above advantages in your used Toyota diesel engines, make sure you have a perfect, affordable and performing engine that is going to revive your old Toyota car and bring it back into action instantly. If you are a Toyota car owner and looking for an old engine that can perform well and help you save money from being invested in a brand new engine, then go online and find various online stores that offer you Reconditioned Toyota Avensisengines for sale. While making a purchase, give special attention on the seller’s reputation, goodwill, and status in the market as these things help you get the best used engine with the least efforts.

Here are the Benefits of Buying Reconditioned Audi A3 Engines from an Automotive Supplier

Its goes without saying that the engine is the heartbeat of your car and one of the most expensive components. If you are unlucky to have an engine fail, and you are not rich enough to buy a new one, you can consider reconditioned engine. Selecting a reconditioned engine for your beloved Audi A3 over a brand new one will be a reliable and cost effective decision. This would help you save hundreds of dollars without making any compromise on functionality and quality.

Now, you must be pondering upon what a reconditioned engine is all about, and where you can get it from. Read further to get your curiosity satisfied.

Lets start with the definition.

Basically, reconditioned Audi A3 Engines are the engine that are built on an old block using new components namely cam bearings, re-ground crankshaft, main bearings and connecting rod bearings, new timing chain, new rocker arms, new camshaft, new valve lifters, water-pump, new oil pump and new pistons. The cylinder head will have new valves, valve guides and retainers.

A lot of work is done to an engine to make it highly functional and error-free. Therefore, if you are unable to buy a new engine due to whatever reasons, you can get a reconditioned engine from a reputed provider and supplier of automotive parts in London, UK.

Here are some benefits of buying a reconditioned engine from a supplier.

When it comes to buying a refurnished engine for your beloved car, you must be looking be an engine that can meet technical and mechanical specifications of it. It is quite difficult to understand such configuration on your own; here a supplier can help you. Engine providers can make you comprehend your car’s specification and provide you the best solution.

A company that deals in reconditioned engines can provide warranty on each of its products for at least one year or up to certain miles. This offer may give you peace of mind that you are cracking an ideal deal.

A reputed supplier would have a sales team that understands your car’s technical demand and provides you advice accordingly. The team also answers all your queries related to the engine and its installation, whenever you want.

A provider, who has goodwill in the automotive market, will never sell inferior products to make money. Therefore, you can trust on them in all terms, from quality to client-servicing policies.

For more information on reconditioned Audi A3 Engines, you can approach a reliable e-tailer in London, UK.

Performance Auto Parts: the Back-yard Mechanic’s 5 Step Guide to Increasing Performance

In today’s market, there are more performance auto parts available than ever before. While finding performance auto parts can sometimes be difficult, finding a perfect match for your car can be immensely gratifying.

There is a lot of satisfaction in knowing that you have found the best performance auto parts money can buy, and a lot of satisfaction in knowing your vehicle runs more efficiently because of your personal expertise. As such, the five principles below can help you navigate your way to better fuel efficiency and enhanced performance.

Replacement Auto Parts, Step by Step

1. Weigh Your Priorities
Before deciding which performance auto parts to install, consider the equipment and skill set required for the job. It’s also wise to determine the amount of time and energy you want to commit, especially in relationship to the anticipated performance benefits. While many performance auto parts can easily be installed by the do-it-yourself mechanic, larger jobs often require specialized tools or equipment. For instance, fuel injectors can be quite an undertaking for the backyard mechanic, requiring both special equipment and substantial labor time. In contrast, performance auto parts like high-flow air filters and rapid-fire spark plugs require less of both.

2. Consider Alternatives and Implications
Given the great interrelatedness of performance auto parts as far as how they function together to increase performance, it’s important to look at the entire picture in regards to how one part may affect another, and ultimately the final outcome.

Consider the “horsepower” example:

Some performance auto parts can result in great gains in horse-power indeed. Some of these performance auto parts include camshafts, high flowing cylinder heads, nitrous oxide, etc. However, adding parts that result in smaller gains can often times provide a greater payoff in the long run. A high-flowing fuel pump, for example, may only result in a small immediate horsepower gain, but if you have the foresight to know you’ll be planning on adding a larger throttle body at a later time, you can be confident that the high flow fuel pump will be well worth it. These performance auto parts work in sync with each other, as most all auto parts do; therefore adding one without the other may not provide the best possible benefit.
3. Measure Performance Gains
Adding performance auto parts incrementally is a great way to analyze your performance gains without overextending your budget. By installing one part at a time, you can attain a more isolated and precise view of the horsepower gains yielded by each part. Incremental installation also provides an easy track-back method for uncovering operational problems. If issues arise, the latest installation can be a likely starting place.

4. Observe Best Practices
Although some performance auto parts can increase you fuel efficiency as well as your horse- power, their effectiveness will be markedly reduced in the absence of some basic best practices and common sense caution. To boot, a more efficiently operating vehicle will last longer if you keep it well maintained. Be sure to regularly change your oil and air filters, and keep your foot off the gas where possible.

5. Replace Your Factory Parts
This step is optional, but is certainly a factor worth mentioning. The inevitable reality is that, due to regular wear and tear, parts will need to be replaced. This scenario presents an opportunity to not only repair your vehicle, but increase its horsepower by upgrading to performance auto parts in lieu of regular stock parts. The cost difference is generally minimal, and because performance auto part manufacturers like to stay competitive, they’ll generally create parts that are higher in quality than factory parts.

VW Passat B5 &Bora;GPS navigation system/DVD Player/6.2″ touchscreen/bluetooth/TV/Special frame

ATSC Antenna: If you are from America or Canada, ATSC antenna may suit you perfectly. Browse our External DVB-T&ATSC directory to explore more about that. TV Antenna: Unnecessary for you to buy a digital one? How about simply erecting a TV antenna on the back of your car, costing only 8USD on specials? However, if you’ve already chosen DVB-T or ATSC, there is absolutely no need for you to install one for your car.

Browse our Car TV Antenna with wholesale price, you may find what you need. iPod control: Got your own iPod and wanna enjoy music in your iPod while driving alone? This iPod control is just what you need. We suggest that you get an iPod holder so that you could control your iPod much easier without being distracted while driving.Back Video: This function allows you to know the back circumstance while rolling back PROVIDING you’ve installed a Backup Camera. In this case, you don’t have to pear through the mirror and run the risk of hitting around. A backup camera is available at$29.99 on our site if bought individually.

However, you could save up ONE DOLLAR on that at $28.99 if you buy the backup camera together with a certain GPS system on our site. All you have to do is click on the accessories option card on your GPS page and add that to your cart too. Or you could simply place the two items on one order and inform us, we would do the minus thing for you.

Note: The backup/rearview camera can only show you the back surroundings; it can not tell you the exact distance between your car and barriers. If you want to know the exact distance, you have to install a parking radar.

Three Must-Have Peugeot 208 GTi Accessories For A Long Trip

Imagine you’re off on a holiday abroad. However, rather than driving you’ve decided to be more adventurous, by taking a proper European road trip, using a ferry or the Eurostar as a gateway to the continent.

You’re going to be spending a great amount of time in the car, travelling from country to country and occasionally switching driver duties with your companions. So, with this in mind you’re going to want to ensure your vehicle is as comfortable as possible. If you happen to drive the Peugeot 208 GTi, you can ensure this is the case with a whole host of carefully tailored accessories.

We’ve taken and detailed just three of the must-own long trip car accessories for a Peugeot 208 GTi below:

An Isotherm Module: The weather conditions experienced by Europe can vary dramatically depending on where you are. Under the gorgeous sun of the Mediterranean you’ll be reaching for a cool bottle of water, whilst you may find yourself reaching for a warm snack in the cold temperatures in Scandinavia. An isotherm module caters to both of these possibilities and is relatively easy to fit in the Peugeot 208 GTi.

Whilst it’s the type of addition you’re not going to splash the cash on if you don’t really take long journeys, but you’ll be grateful you did if you do travel around a fair bit. Running off a 12 volt power pack, the isotherm module sits perfectly on one of the 208 GTi model’s backseats. It has a capacity of 21 litres, allowing you to ensure your 208 GTi is well-stocked with drinks, sandwiches, and whatever else you might choose to chow down upon.

Central Front Armrest with Storage Pocket: On the typical road trip, space in your Peugeot 208 GTi is going to be at an absolute premium. The Peugeot 208 GTi Central Front Armrest with Storage Pocket provides a reasonable amount of extra storage space – without being too intrusive – whilst offering extra comfort for both driver and passenger. It’s offers the kind of space that’s great for storing away gadgets – such as MP3 players, when you’ve all become bored of hearing the latest Skrillex album on repeat, and portable games consoles.

However, it’s worth noting that you’ll probably require a mechanic to fit the Central Front Armrest with Storage Pocket in your Peugeot 208 GTi, and this might cost you a little bit extra.

Sunblind For Rear Screen Glass: There are going to be occasions, namely those when you’re not charged with getting your party to the next destination, where you want to get a bit of shut eye. However, it can be quite difficult to sleep during the day – especially with strong sun seemingly beaming down through the back windscreen. For this reason a sunblind can come in incredibly useful.

Whilst keeping the sun out, these sun blinds – designed specifically for the Peugeot 208 GTi – can also help to keep the cabin cool. In addition to selling the Sunblind for Rear Screen Glass, Peugeot also manufactures and sells sun blinds for the side windows of the 208 GTi.

Latest Trends in Car Accessories

People always wanted to have a really awesome car, for some reason. Even for much younger generation, they always think it is cool to have the hottest car in town. I think that is because, subconsciously, people want someone to ride with them in their cars. Below are the list of car’s entertainment that you might want to put in your car.

Nowadays, it is not only an Audio with heavy amp, sub woofers and all for car’s accessories. It also includes Video along with the Audio’s. People who own these will probably get a full home theater in their cars, suv’s with a clear resolution in an Audio Video.
People use neon lights and may different lights that give a dramatic look in the dark. For others this is a great idea especially if they want more fancy lights to make their cars different even in nights with a twist of special effects. It also gives a different look while on the road in the dark if you put some graphic sticker that are available to reflects light & shines. There is a huge range of other light fittings as fog lamps, L.E.D. fittings.. .etc

Rear and front bumpers, side view mirrors, side steps, body kits, bars and etc. are the exterior accessories that can change the look of your car. Though you might want to check these personally first, choose those with high-quality before you buy some.

Interior accessories will surely change the look of your car. Others use to change the whole seat with the sports seat to make it more cool. However changing gear knobs, gear shaft covers, pedal covers, are more common especially for the guys because they want something new and attractive for their car. Few of us are also interested in changing the steering wheel too, as that was not easy job that was done by the experts only.
You can also try to experiment with your Tyres/Rims/Silencer Cover which gives a sporty look to a car. Alloy rims come in a variety of range / designs / sizes here you got every thing in a single window. But as I said earlier it will be a great idea of you check all the options and choose from all different store before you finally choose the right one for your car.

Anti Theft security system is the only way to secure your car from being stolen. As it comes with various features such as immobilizer, ignition cut-off, The good thing about today lots of companies are manufacturing security security systems some of leading names are Black Cat, Nippon, Vision, …etc. and they also gives warranty / guarantee for manufacturing defects for all of their customers.

15 Worst Car Modifications, Bad Upgrades & Auto Accessories

There have always been those among us car enthusiasts who take the design of every vehicle they own to it’s very edge of speed, handling and style.  All the modifications are *completely* useless (maybe mildly counterproductive).  Here is my public service announcement:  the 10 worst ways to modify your car.

1.  Decals That Belong on Other Cars

One popular way to convince people your car is “da bomb” is to apply a fake sticker claiming it’s “turbo” charged or on some “racing team.”  One of the most popular “fakes” was the “Type R” decal on Honda Civics and Acura Integras, which was *only* applied to a very limited edition, top performance line of Civics and Integras.

2.  Turbocharger Speakers AKA Fake Engine Sounds

A turbocharger or “turbo” (a thing that you put in the engine to make the car faster) is considered a “cool” upgrade for big boys (from a guy’s point of view) or little men (from a female perspective *wink*).  There are only 3 ways to let potential breeding partners know your car has a turbo (alleging that you are then, cool).  1. Label it with a “turbo charged”  sticker.  2. Drive it…making sure everyone hears your engine’s new “sound.”  3.  Buy a “turbo” speaker system!  Yes, some car buffs, with only a few brain cells to knock together, discovered a cheaper alternative to turbo charging their engines.  Simply purchase a speaker system to mimic that classic turbo sound. The kits even feature a switch, to  turn on the sound at stoplights…prompting all women in earshot to walk in the other direction. With the Sunami speaker system, you don’t even need an actual car.  When potential mates stop by, or call, just secretly flick the switch and say, “Sorry… can’t hear you over my new turbocharger.”  (Face it…you weren’t going to get a second date anyway.)

3. Race Car Blow-off Valves

Some creative car lovers saw a 90s street racing movie and mistakenly thought they *needed* a blow off valve for their Honda Accord.  Sure, now your econo-car *sounds* like a jet.  Then, as your shifting gears in city traffic, you realize that new LOUD hiss of compressed air isn’t the smoothest sound…especially when you have to hear it a 1000x/day every rush hour.  The kicker…your annoying car doesn’t even go any faster!

4. Super Loud (stupid cheap) Exhaust Systems

An aftermarket exhaust system is the #1 modification every hot rodder wants.  A less restrictive exhaust system frees up horsepower and lets out more of the engine’s natural tone.  One car buff said it best. It makes a car sound like “a swarm of drugged bees being shot out of the ass of an elephant.”  A crappy exhaust system sound like…well…shit.  PLEASE!  Splurge on a decent muffler for your Hot Rod (for all our sakes).

5.  Giant Wings AKA Baby Got Back

The concept of a wing is not entirely bad. IE.  A Porsche 911 has a small spoiler that comes up at 60mph+. Porsche claims this is enough “downforce” for the car, which can go faster than 190mph.  Whatever works on race cars will work for all cars…right?  WRONG!  F1 cars go *so* fast that the wind through the wing pushing the tires down actually *does* make a difference in steering and control.  Reality check…Most cars with BIG wings aren’t even able to reach speeds of 110mph+, which their wing’s down force could enhance.  Thus, most cars do NOT need a “wing,” (let alone 2 or even 3 wings). NOTE TO NASCAR FANS:  There *is* a difference between a spoiler and a wing.  Although they’re both cool looking tail pieces, a spoiler is the one close down on the trunk like on the Civic Si.  The spoiler directs the airflow path down the back of the car, which decreases drag while increasing mileage.   The affectionately nick-named “rice rockets” usually end up with *both* a rear wing and  front wheel drive and steering. So, even *if* the wing is working at all, it would pick *up* the wheels, rather than push them down.  DOH!?!  Yes, most “Rice Rocketeers” add wings to their car that aren’t even shaped for providing *any* down force at all.  They might even  provide some lift instead, or, due to their heavy weight, create drag to slow the car down. MY FAVE:  Three (yes, count them) 3 wings where no oncoming air could ever reach them!

6.  Low Profile Tires AKA Big Wheels

Low-profile tires (commonly known as “low-pros”) are expensive and hard to find.  They kind of look cool because you see much more of the alluring, chrome wheel, and less of the dull, rubber tire.  BUT…Do  bigger wheels also let people see your awesome brakes?  We must assume cars with low-pros *do* indeed have awesome brakes, simply because their main purpose is to   allow the use of more powerful brakes, provide better handling and reduce weight below the suspension.   WARNING POTHOLES!  Once low-pros start to age, they start cracking around the sidewalls from baking in the sun for years.  The first pothole they hit can crack low profile  tires right open.  You *may* get lots of compliments on your lo-pros, but word won’t buy you new tires (@$1,000).

7.  Classic Car Replica AKA Aerodynamic Body Kits

What is an “aerodynamic” body kit?  This is for car lovers who don’t want to actually lower  the car’s suspension…but want that phat, “low suspension” look.  (Oh yeah…you’re cool.) Why do car owners think this will “work?”  “Wide wheels” provide better traction, but also require wider wheel wells to cover them and direct air over them.  The result of the two working together is called the “ground effects.”  The narrow space left between the car and the ground helps pull the car down (that same down force they want from car wings). As with the wings, a car gets more down force from the heavy weight of the body kit than any ground effects that *may* be generated.  WARNING:  Body kits can be VERY DANGEROUS in the wrong hands.  Friends don’t let friends use bad body kits!

8.  DIY Lower Car Suspension

How do you take a simple, stock car and smother it in sex appeal?  Give it a  “slammed” look by lowering the suspension yourself!   Lowing a car’s center of gravity allows you to handle it better and feel less body roll in the curves.  (*IF* you do it right…you did, right?) What…you don’t KNOW?!?  Tell me you did NOT simply hook on the biggest set of springs you found. If so, dude (or dudette) you’ve got a big problem!  When you lower the springs, without the rest of the suspension, you’ve got “bump steer.”  IE.  When you hit a bump (better make that a “jump”) in the road…HOLD ON.  Every time your wheel hits a bump or groove in the road, your car will now steer in that direction. Wait…you didn’t even *buy* new springs?  You just cut your car’s old springs to lower it.  Congratulations!  Your car no longer has a functioning suspension system.  Better beat it around EVERY bump in the road…you’ve got NOTHING absorbing that shock now.

9. Putting A 450hp Race Car Clutch In A 200hp Ride

Whenever one of my friends gets a Mustang, they feel the urge to buy a pair of Flowmasters, and a K&N CAI…and the heaviest, least practical clutch you can find.   (IE.  the King Cobra clutch).  Their car makes 220, but they add a clutch rated for drivetrains of 450hp+. WARNING:  This does *not* make the car any faster, but it *does* make your left leg cramp up in traffic.  You’ll wear the clutch out early from lazy shifting.

10. Fake Chrome On A Real Car

I like chrome as much as the next guy (or girl, as the case may be).  Yet, just because a Classic Cadillac is beautifully bathed in chrome, doesn’t mean your Honda Civic is gonna look sick with stick-on strips.  Some compulsive car junkies cover their car in fake chrome strips, accentuating every angle in…plastic.  Leave the plastic at Pep Boys…PLEASE!

11. Trailer Hitch Toilet AKA BUMPER DUMPER

12. Trailer Hitch Stripper Pole AKA  Platinum Stage

13. Car Mustache AKA Carstache

14.  Balls For Your Truck AKA Truck Nutz

Beyond serving no purpose, other than announcing your terrible taste, these fake ball sacks are actually illegal in some states.  Is this an over reaction by the so-called moral majority?  I, for one, am glad the government intervened to save us from this “Macho, Macho Mod!”

15. My Fave FakesThat Did Not Make My List:  Neon underglows, rhinestone studded mud flaps, and super spinners.  What are *your* favorite car modifications?

Used Car buying Guide for Jaguar S Type

Buying a used car can have potential pitfalls – but it needn’t be a painful experience if you follow a simple set of rules and checks.

This article aims to provide you with all the advice and information to make the right choices when buying a second-hand car. This guide can significantly help you with if you are going to buy a used Jaguar S Type car on sale

Browse the areas below to arm yourself with all the information you need to make the successful purchase of Jaguar S Type car.

Always compare prices of used cars

There are number of websites you can use to compare 100s of used S type cars for sale in your local areas. So do your search and find few most suitable cars to visit.

Essential car buying checks

Jaguar S Type

The Jaguar S-Type was a mid-sized executive saloon, designed to take on the Audi A6, BMW 5-Series and Mercedes E Class. However, it was never as popular as its German rivals, partly because of its retro styling; its lines were directly influenced by Jaguar’s sporting saloons of the 1960s, such as the Mark 2. Reliability could also be an issue; while the car was great to drive when working properly, some cars didn’t give the fault-free service that their owners expected. However, decent packaging, generous equipment levels and class-leading comfort ensured many buyers chose British instead of German.

Know the history

The Jaguar S-Type made its world debut at the Birmingham International Motor Show in October 1998. Until now, Jaguar had focused largely on large luxury saloons and sportscars, so the S-Type was conceived to expand sales significantly, in conjunction with the even smaller X-Type. Although all of its key rivals were offered in both saloon and estate forms, Jaguar chose to offer the former only; something that proved to be quite a restriction to selling large numbers of S-Type. The S-Type finally bowed out in 2008, when its replacement the XF came on stream. Already the XF is proving to be far more popular than the S-Type ever was.

All Types of S Type

Jaguar launched the S-Type in 1998 with 3.0-litre V6 or 4.0-litre V8 petrol engines, then in 2002 a 2.5-litre V6 petrol engine joined the range. At the same time, a 4.2 V8 superseded the 4.0-litre unit, which was also available in supercharged form in the S-Type R. The Sport 200 limited edition arrived in May 2003, based on the Sport but with extra equipment and Type R bumpers. The S-Type was facelifted in March 2004, with a reprofiled rear end and refreshed nose, higher quality interior trim and revised instrumentation. More than five years after the S-Type’s debut, the best derivative finally appeared; the 2.7-litre V6 turbodiesel.

Know Few Important Facts about S Type?

  • The S-Type was the world’s first production car to feature voice-activated controls for all of the primary audio, phone and climate control functions.
  • Before S-Type production got underway, Jaguar created over one million virtual cars to establish the most efficient assembly process.
  • The S-Type was one of the first cars to use hydroform technology, where oil is injected into tubular steel under immense pressure.

Jaguar S Type – Options

Jaguar S Type car is available in 1 shape

  • Jaguar S Type Saloon – The engines are smooth, the ride is comfortable, and it’s good value for money.

It’s time to visit and test the Jaguar X Car

Jaguar XJ’s Looks

Some argue the Jaguar S-Type looks are slightly contrived to create a direct link with the original S-Type from the 1960s, but others love its retro charm. Its 2004 facelift gave the mid-sized Jaguar some deeper front bumpers, which while at odds with the olde-worlde image, keep the car looking contemporary. The Jaguar S-Type has a genuine feline quality, from its four round headlights and oval grille through its curvy flanks through to its rear haunches.

Car Accessories & Interior

Car accessories and interior play important role in the price of a used car. Only Car accessories and interior can make or break your decision. There’s no doubting you’re sitting inside a Jaguar; it has a real sense of occasion, with leather covering most surfaces and a set of clear but classy-looking dials – much like an expensive chronograph watch. Jaguar’s trademark ‘J’ shaped gear gate sits ahead of a chrome push-button handbrake. The centre console sits in a curved recess and houses controls for the climate control and audio systems. The Jag’s leather seats look great and proved very comfortable too. Critics say the S-Type’s interior is old fashioned, so drivers seeking a modern, Germanic cabin should look elsewhere.

How practical is Jaguar S Type?

The Jaguar S-Type isn’t the most practical car in its class. The boot can swallow 400 litres of luggage, rising to 810 with the rear seats folded. That’s about 100 litres less than the BMW 5 Series, mainly due to it being very shallow because of the S-Type’s sloping bodywork and space-sapping rear-wheel drive layout.

Jaguar S-Type Performance

The Jaguar S-Type can be specified with one of four engines: a 2.7 diesel or a 3-litre and two 4.2-litre petrol configurations; one with a supercharger.

Running Cost

Although the Jaguar S-Type is cheaper than many of its rivals, especially when factoring the amount of standard equipment, it is not a particularly cheap car to run, especially in the petrol-powered guises.

Other than the Car

Car Tyre

  • Take a look at the tyres. Are they in good condition? The minimum legal tread depth for tyres in the UK is 1.6mm.


  • You must see the V5C document, the service history, the MOT. Everything must be present and correct, or you should walk away from the deal.

MOT & Road Tax

Always check the expiry date of MOT and Road tax. This could increase the cost you pay to buy used car if MOT or Road or both are about to expire. These things you must also check when you are comparing the car prices of used Jaguar S Type or other cars.

Jaguar S Type Car Insurance Band

Car insurance band is another important dimension to look at when comparing and purchasing a used car. Overall Jaguar cars insurance group ranges from 14E – 19E where as S Type stands on 14E band.

Comparison Of Different Types Of Car Tow Dollies

This article is going to evaluate a couple of things you should consider before you buy a tow dolly. First, you want to consider the warranty.

Most manufacturers offer a very limited 1 year warranty on the “assembly” of the tow dolly. That is very vague. Hardly anything can go wrong with the “assembly” of a tow dolly. What really matters is the warranty for moving parts like brakes, bearings, actuators etc. These are the essential moving parts and  actually the only thing that can malfunction or go wrong on a tow dolly. When making the purchase look for a company that offers a 5 year warranty on these parts. That is a good indication to you the high faith they have in their product.

There are no warranties for lights, tires, wheel straps, ratchets. In fact lights and wheel straps are considered to be consumables on a tow dolly. Car Tow Dolly comes in 4 styles. An idler, ( No Brakes ), an Electric Brake System, A Hydraulic Surge Drum Brake System, or a Hydraulic Surge Disc Brake System.

The idler system is frequently assigned for around town use, shuttling small cars from place to place around town. If you are to be traveling it is essential to know that many states require brakes of one type or other on a Car Tow Dolly. Eachyear more states are added to the list. Also, the resale value of a tow dolly with brakes is much higher.

Electric Brake System is better than not having anything. But not the best system. Electric brakes require a Brake Control Box inside your RV. The box has built in sensort technology, and outer adjusting handles. If you are not very knowledgeable in understanding and setting these controls then you probably actually do not have brakes on your Tow Dolly and just don’t know it. In addition to that, if you ever have a brake problem you will have to troubleshoot beginning with the brake control box, the wiring from the brake system back to the trailer plug, then the complete wiring system of the tow dolly. A real burden and quite costly proposit.
A Hydraulic Surge Brake System is the most efficient and trouble free system. It will cost a good bit more, but it is worth it. Nearly all manufacturers use a Hydraulic Surge “DRUM” Brake System. This is in reality a rather old technology. Drum brakes run much hotter, have a propensity towards chucking or abrupt hard braking. Due to the features of a Tow Dolly, Electric and Hydraulic DRUM Brake Systems are very difficult to adjust. The adjusting port is blocked by a spindle plate and one cannot access the adjuster port to adjust the brakes. Some dealers will tell you that tow dollies have brake adjusters. Well that is a play on words. They do have adjusters, but they are manual, not automatic. There are no trailers of any kind with self adjusting brakes. After each single long trip tow dolly brakes need to be adjusted or you just will not have brakes and may never know it. So, the near perfect braking system is a Hydraulic Surge “DISC” Brake System. DISC brakes run much cooler, never need adjusting, they do not chuck or hit hard when activated and they are four times more capable than a DRUM system. The brake pads are in clear sight and effortless to replace with pads obtainable at all auto parts stores.

The perfect tow dolly will also come equipped with maintenance free bearings. Bearings that never need greasing. These are very common on very costly high end equipment trailers but are rarely observed on small trailers. These are just a few considerations prior to making a purchase decision. One should take their time and shop carefully. Go to the manufacturer’s web site and see for yourself how much information they make available to you about their product.

Top Four Tips To Keep Engine Fighting Fit

If you wish to get the best performance from your car, it is very important to keep the engine fighting fit. But, it can only be achieved with regular care of the engine. It needs to be looked after. You have to spend time on its regular maintenance to keep it in good running condition.

If you do not have any idea how to take care of the engine, you must go through this article. This article contains a few engine care tips that promise effective results if taken seriously. Stay on top of these tips to keep yourself from shelling out more cash to get engine-related problem resolved later down the road.

Oil Change

Changing the oil on a specified time period is one of the best things that you can do with your car’s engine. Oil keeps engines parts well lubricated which further protect them from being overheat. The most recent standard for modern cars is to change the oil every 5000 miles, i.e., 8,047 kilometers. It is very to change the oil in order to avoid permanent damage to the engine over time. Along with this, get the oil filter changed periodically because it catches all the dirt and debris floating around inside of the engine. With a new oil and filter, your car’s engine will work in an efficient manner.

Cooling System

You need to look after the cooling system of your car in order to keep the engine performing well. The cooling system includes the radiator, thermostat, water pump and coolant. To avoid overheating of engine make sure the proper amount of coolant, radiator fluid, is circulating throughout the engine.

Checks for leaks

You need to check that oil and antifreeze—the two main fluids—are not leaking out of the engine. Intense heat and pressure can affect engine hoses. So, it is a good idea to check under your hood to detect leakage from the engine.

Spark Plugs and Wires

You are advised not to avoid spark plugs and wires. The wires running from the distributor send an electrical current to the spark that generate a spark to ignite the fuel and air mixture in the cylinder. If they are too old, they can affect your engine’s performance. It is recommended to change them every 48, 280 kilometers.

These are the tips that you should take into consideration in order enhance life of your car’s engine. If you are having any engine-related problem and want to get it replaced, you can think about reconditioned engines. There are many online retailers offeringReconditioned Nissan Navara Engines and for other cars at affordable price.

The blood for car engine – oil

Oil gets pulped through the small engine passage of car engine lubricating all the moving parts and also acts as cooling agent in order to decrease the heat generated by the engine. The survival of engine is completely dependent on its oil.

The major parts that are involved in pumping oil throughout engine effectively are the oil filter, oil pump, oil pan and moving parts. The moving parts includes the cylinder walls, piston rings, rod and main bearings and valve train which needs to be lubricated to prevent metal to metal friction inside the engine. The oil filter will catch hold of harmful debris, dirt or metal that enters into the oil system. The more efficient the filter is, the greater the probability of protected engine.

The oil pump is highly essential for engine lubrication. The pump is solely responsible to create pressure which pushes oil all through the engine parts. Without this pump, oil may sit ideally inside the pan. The oil pan is the place where oil waits to get propelled into its action by oil pump. When the pump pushes the oil, it finds its way through passage lubricating all parts of the engine and finally returns to oil pan making one complete cycle.

Engine oil for car should be changed at regular intervals. Skipping the process of changing oils, going beyond the mileage and extending the period for change of oil may accelerate wearing of significant parts which are essential to run the car smoothly. It also protects the car from premature breakdown. Once engine gets damaged, it will create deep hole in the pocket. So it’s better to change the engine oil for car at right time without any delay.

One should check manufacturer recommendation for the type of engine protection oil as it differs according to the driving condition. There are separate oils for extreme driving condition and normal driving ones. One should check in the list provided by the manufacturer before filling oil in the engine. Severe driving condition includes the frequent trips and hotter climatic conditions.

Engine protection oil should be selected based on the car and its usage. If the vehicle is SUV which travel in extreme cold or hot condition then one should go for full synthetic or synthetic blend oil. The oil also depends on the age of car. If the vehicle has traveled more than 75,000 miles, it is advisable to use high mileage oil in order to keep it completely functional.

It’s good to oil engine regularly than to suffer from unexpected breakdown while travelling.

Tips To Buy Kia Sephia Auto Parts in USA

With the demand of vehicles increasing day by day, need for genuine car products is also gaining significance. There are several car product dealers in the market, but all they care about is selling their product and recovering their costs.

Honesty of a dealer depends a lot on the references it can provide. So research about the dealer and try to speak to the references it has provided. These references will also help you gain some idea about the years of experience he has in dealing with the spare products. Given an authentication of its genuineness and the expertise in the industry you can bank on his experience for buying an unalloyed product for your vehicle. To check the originality of the product you depend on the above mentioned tips. Taking care some things while a product will save you from the grief of buying a unwanted product.

Regular maintenance of your vehicle requires in time servicing and removing the deadweight. Once your vehicle undergoes regular servicing you get to know about the damages that is obstructing the smooth working. This may also include some damaged chunk of your car that should be replaced.

There are many concerns related to the genuineness these damaged portions of a car when we buy them from a dealer. One way to release some of your concerns can be to buy them from an experienced dealer. Four green auto parts, for example, is a prominent dealer of Kia Sephia auto parts. He is among the major vendors of the Kia auto parts in USA.

As your mind is surrounded by the worries related to efficient working the car’s replaced product, there are certain tips that will help you in identifying original products for your vehicle. These will further help you determine the worth of the price you are paying to buy the product.

Don’t miss out on the research part:

Do a complete research regarding the product you are buying for your car. This is especially important for those who are new to buying the car product themselves. A good way can be to search about the product on the internet and then verifying what you are buying with the features you have read. Your research should also include verifying the experience and the honesty of the dealer you are buying from.

Show your related expertise:

This will stop the dealer from fooling. Let the dealer know that you have knowledge about the product you are buying and he cannot trap you into buying a fake product. Researching about the product will also help you in protecting yourself from paying unreasonable prices and in identifying a worn out product.

Use coupons:

Trading with coupons will help save money on costly car products. Using coupon can even assist you in buying the product that you think is out of your reach. Thus, never avoid using coupons as it make cheaper, saving you some amount.

Car Rim Sizes And Wheel Materials

Car rims have been on the market for some time now but their popularity continues to increase. Through movements such as hip hop culture, as well as their appearance in mainstream music videos and Hollywood movies custom wheels have definitely taken a spotlight in terms off “the” car accessory of choice for when you want to make your car stand out and claim king on the streets.

Just like other car accessories when it comes to picking out car rims you’ll have a wide array of options to look at including wheel materials and rim sizes.

Car rim sizes are not to be overlooked as not all sizes and models will fit properly with your car and current tire size. Before you even get into shopping for your wheels you need to either go visit a mechanic or take your car into a specialist to find out exactly what size and style will be able to work with your model of car as well as what would suit your driving patterns and goals.

Wheels sizes for compact vehicles will be about 13inches and that number will just continue to grow for larger cars like SUVs where 24 or 25 inch wheels will be a bit more commonplace.

Another term you’ll start to hear about as you look into getting the right size rims for your car or truck is “Plus Sizing”. This just refers to when the rims are actually getting bigger in relation to the current tire size. It can provide and amazing look and now even major automobile companies can be found offering plus sizing on their stock vehicles. Plus sizing not only gives your wheels a bigger visual impact but it can help you out when it comes to handling and control of your car.
So what about rim materials? There are also different materials to choose from when it comes to materials. Not only will different materials demand higher or lower prices but they will also affect car performance.

Chrome and Alloy wheels are probably the most popular materials being used to make car rims on the market at the moment. Alloy is the material that most are made of when you buy them at the dealership. They are light, fairly easy to keep clean, and aren’t usually too expensive. They are a good all around rim for doing your daily driving and getting around with ease.

Then you have the heavier and flashier chrome rims. Many specialized wheels are made out of chrome because of the beautiful shine and luster they give off. Chrome will really help your vehicle stand out. If you are thinking about buying custom chrome rims you will need to think about price because a nice set of chromes will cost you a pretty penny.

Customize Your Classic Car – Paint Your Own Rims

Paint your own Rims? Who would have thought something previously done by professionals could be done in your own home.
While, the concept of painting your own rims has been around a few years now, many questions pop up of how to do it and I thought I would share my own experiences with painting my Integra stock rims. I have read up many examples of how to do this, but my first time trying was this year when I chose to refinish my winter rims. I was quite please with the outcome.

First, what the hell do you need to paint your rims? Paint of course 🙂 This is where Duplicolor comes in with their wheel paint. They offer paint colors to match your style coming in white, gunmetal, classic silver and bronze as well. I chose to do mine in gunmetal leaving my lip the stock polished style look. So here are your options:

So you chose your color, bought your paint and are semi-ready. First, you need to sand down your rims. Why? This gives the surface a rough texture so the paint has something to adhere to. Reference the article to polish your rims on how sanding of the rims works. The only difference with this is how far you want to go. In my case, being winter rims painted I chose not to go through the process of stripping the paint on the rims completely. I simply sanded down the surface with 300 grit sandpaper ensuring to make everything sanded equally. This gives the rough surface required for the paint to adhere, and as long as your rims had no damage it should be good enough.

Your rims are sanded; you have your paint and now are ready. First, make sure you clean all sanding dust off the rims and ensure a totally clean surface so the paint will stick and not flake off after your first drive out with your newly painted rims!!! Here are my rims washed and ready to completely dry before painting:

My rims are masked off with newspaper and masking tape. Of course you want to do this so you don’t turn your tires into the color you are painting. I don’t want gunmetal painted tires. Also if you look close enough, you will know that the lip has been masked off as well. So I carefully applied the masking tape on the lip to protect it from being painted as well. Also, you know the little thing you pump your air into, mask that off as well unless you want that to have a color change as well 🙂

The rims are dry, you have masked off what you don’t want painted and now you are ready. Put some newspaper on the ground and place the rim on top of the newspaper. You don’t want to paint the concrete underneath the rim so keep it clean with the newspaper.

Now apply your first coat of paint. Let the paint dry well and next day admire your handiwork and results.

Motorcycle Tire Care

It is essential to keep your motorcycle tires in good condition. Proper motorcycle tire care is needed to keep the life span of your tire much longer. Doing a weekly or monthly check up is a recommended habit to ensure that your tires are still safe to use.

Motorcycle tire care is done to ensure that the tire walls does not have any cuts or cracks in them as this may do great damage to the tire even how small the crack or cut is. One important thing to check is the air pressure of the tire. You must always maintain enough pressure to have a safe motorcycle ride. Proper pressure also allows your motorcycle cycle to have a better performance. Make sure that the air pressure does not get low as this make it harder to control the motorcycle. Having low air pressures can cause the tire to separate and it may even cause some blowouts. Blowouts are caused by a heated tire due to a low air pressure. So it is really important to monitor the air pressure of your motorcycle tire.

The tread wear is also an important part of the tire. Vehicular accidents are most likely to occur when there is no enough tread. Most known manufacturers will say that a tread depth of 32 seconds of an inch means that it is time to replace the tire. A lot of people ride their motorcycles with a bald tire. This is not a very good practice as you will be prone to accidents. Remember, you only have two tires so you do not need a bald tire. You need both tires in good condition to prevent possible accidents. You must always ensure your own safety and the way to do this is to make sure you have a correct tread depth.

The rims play a very important role in keeping the tires for a long period of time. It keeps the shape more intact. If you are having a spoke rim, it is important that you tighten them correctly to prevent any damage. It is recommended to have a professional tighten them up for you. They are more knowledgeable on how to secure them and they have the proper equipment in tightening it up. If your rims are solid, this may cause your tire to dent and wear faster and even cause them to wobble along the way. This is quite a dangerous situation and very much unsafe. You have to replace them immediately.

Maintaining motorcycle tires are important. It is just like taking care of your own life. A small problem in the tires may lead to a much bigger one. That is why proper motorcycle care must be done in a regular basis. You have to keep them free from any kind of problem that could possibly cause a much greater problem in the future. Check the tires every now and then to ensure that you will be traveling safe miles with a good motorcycle tire.

Ferrari F430 and 360 Modena Wheels and Tires

There are many choices and styles to look at when you are looking for Ferrari Wheels and Tires. Options abound as well as the cost of wheels and tires for your car. You want to get the nicest wheels and tires that you can get and also stay within your budget.

There are the Hamann Edition Race Wheels and Tires. As well as the Novitech NF3 series for your Ferrari F430 or Ferraro 360 Modena sports-car. If you are purchasing your wheels for your F430, There are the Hamann Anniversary Special Edition F430 Wheels. They are all in the $13,000 to $15,000 range. One nice option with the Novitech NF3 Wheels is there is a Custom Color Option for around in these figures.

In any case you should be able to purchase a set of wheels and tires in the $6,000 to $17,000 range at highest. A Ferrari is defiantly an investment not to be taken lightly. So you will want to choose the wheel’s that will best suit you and your personal style. There are many options to choose from when you are shopping for your wheels and tires. You want to do your car and your wallet proud while feeling satisfied that you got the best deal for your dollar.

When it comes to satisfaction of a purchase well made and a smile on the customers face. Also, shiny new wheels on an Italian Classic Race Car. You will know that you got the best wheels and tires for you and your car. And you saved money while you did it.

Tires and Road Safety

The Significance of Tires

Why are tires so important? Well, look at your car and tell me, which part of it touches the tarmac? Right, just the tires. It’s the tires that grip the road and this grip allows us to accelerate, slow down, turn sideways, dampen bumps, etc. Many people look after their brakes, but in action it’s not the brakes that stop the car (just like it’s not the steering that turns the car), it’s the tires. Go improve your braking system: Fit a bigger master cylinder, sturdier pipes, bigger rotors, discs and more grippy pads. How much feet of stopping distance will you earn? Nothing! Why? Because your tires stop the car and they can only apply so much of a stopping force. Put better tires on the car, and watch the stopping distance shorten by dozens of precents!

So, driving without good tires is much like driving without good brakes. Would you drive without good brakes? No, right? Than don’t drive with faulty or badly inflated tires! Tires are also quite cheap (in spite of a certain increase of costs due to the latest oil crysis) relative to their contribution to both performance and safety, so there’s no room for compromise. To have a better understanding, take two sheets of paper, and push them under both sides of the tires, front and back, untill they meet resistance that stops you from pushing them further. Look at the gap that is left between the two sheets: This is the whole size of the tires’ contact patch that actually touches the ground, and don’t be surprised if it’s no bigger than your shoe. The fate of your life sits on four size-9 shoes!

Estimations in Western states consider about 12% of the collisions, mostly harsh ones. This does not include collisions where tires had a significant contribution where people that stopped after their tires broke down, had been run down on the roadside, and in situations where a lost of control (categorized as sliding, swerving, lost of control or speeding accidents) would have been prevented by better tires, and in situations where good and carefully inflated tires would have stopped the car earlier before an obstacle or reduce the contact speed to a minimum.

History of Tires

The invention of Pneumatic tires is attributed to one Robert William Thomson, but they were only applied in action by John Dunlp on bicycles in 1986. The Tire became removable not five years later, and tubless tires were introduced in 1903; five years later tires became treaded and in 1910 they turned into the black round tires we know today. Of course the tire industry has made a great progress in constant development of new technologies like regroovable truck tires, recycled tires (which are still not very efficient in terms of road grip) and other developments. A new tire is ten times as durable as those that were used thirty years past, although this rigidity made the tires less resistent to aging which is caused by the atmosphere.

The modern tire industy is also a succesfull economy. It is the main buyer of rubber, which is being purchased at Malaysia, Indonesia and even in parts of Africa (after world war two), where woods of ‘Haveae’ trees were planted. These trees, once matured, are bleeded by a spiral cut that protrudes their outside layer, causing them to bleed their elastic sap into bowls. By heating it with a mixture of acids it turns into rubber of various qualities.

Synthetic rubber (made of crude oil, charcolan and Acetylene) has turned more and more popular, especially in light cars, first as an economic move of the great tire and rubber buyers of America and Europe, which sought to reduce their dependency on the far-eastern countries (along with growing heavae trees in the british colonies of west Africa). Today, both the synthetic and natural rubber are made in the far east. Modern tire industries include over 100 manufacturers and one billion tires sold per year, with over 20 billion dollars made annually. Be worn, though, that the amount of cheap and low-quality tires is about equall to that of good tires.

Tire manufacturing

Tire factories are a highly occupied industy, with many professional secrets. The development of a certain tire brand, even a simple road tire, costs hundreds of thousands and millions of dollars. The industy is based on far-eastern rubber, natural and synthetic, which is being sewn into layers. The grey color of the rubber is turned black by use of soot which increases the tires’ radiation and heat resistance in a low cost, and by applying many chemical agents, such as anti-oxidants and anti-ozonenats. These “Plies” are than extruded with the other plies of polyester and steel. The tire is than sulphated and packed with sylicon before being shifted to the market.

Old tires were made in a diagonal shape: One ply was set diagonally relative to the next. These “bias-ply” tires had many disadvatages: They worked as one unit in dampening road bumps and dispersing heat. They were very vulnrable to under-inflation, heat buildup at high speeds (at 60mph, an average road tires rotates almost 1000 times per minute), and to punctures: The tires had in internal tube with air, which, once punctured, would allow the air to leak quickely from the point of connection between the tire and rim.

Modern tires are Radial: They have a thin sidewall which is seperated from the thicker tread. The tires are also steel-belted (for structural rigidity) and “Tubeless” which means that the air is being fed directly into the tire. This technology reduces the speed in which air is bled during a puncture. Fitting a tube into such a tire is dangerous.

Tires are divided into groups:

1. Standard Road Tires: Including high-performance tires (marked as such).

2. All-Season Tires: Marked by M/S for “Mud and Snow.” These tires give a good compromise between dry road grip and grip on thin, loose snow or mud in the winter.

3. All-Terrain Tires: General purpose off-road tires, including a sub-division for sand-dune tires

4. Mud-Terrain Tires: Aggressive off-road tires for driving in mud.

5. Snow tires: Used for snowy and icy conditions.

6. Ice Tires: Studded tires for hard ice.

7. DOT-Racing Tires: Racing tires (soft rubber compound and shallow tread) which are street legal.

8. Racing Slicks: Racing-purpose tires used in professional leagues, with no tread or with a shallow tread (semi-slick).

9. All-steel tires: Used in heavy vehicles like trucks.

10. Bike tires: including road tires, performance tires, terrain tires, etc.

Every category includes various brands and qualities. For the average road driver, the main criteria is to purcahse a tire from a known brand. Unknown tire manufacturers (Like the “Ling-Long” tires that were used in an experiment in Britian) usually make tires that are highly ungrippy and in a serious risk of blowout. The quality of the tire is just as crucial (if not more) than the wear, age or inflation of the tire. New but low-quality tires can be more dangerous than old tires from a good quality.

Tires are rated in what is called a QUTG rating. These specify the tires’ temperature, traction and treadwear ratings, as tested by the US Department Of Transporation (DOT) at the St. Angelo test track at Texas.Temperature specifies the tire’s ability to disperse heat and cope with high temperatures (road tires can reach an internal temperature of 86 degrees celsius!). Most tires have an A rating. B-rated tires can be a satisfactory to people who don’t make long drives on highways or with load. C-rated tires should be avoided. These tires run at 130km/h for 30 minutes before being demolished, while A-rated tires would sustain a speed above 200 km/h!

The traction rating is decieving. It does not imply the tire’s grip levels. It indicates how well it stops on a damp road. It effectivelly illustrates the ability of the tire to drain water and grip a wet road. An AA-rated tire can be worst, on the dry, than some B-rated tires. Still, it’s advised not to go below B. In countries with wet weather, it’s preferable to go for A. The AA rating is new and does not nessecarily indicate a higher quality relative to an A-rated tire.

The Treadwear rating is very important, as it indicates how soft the tread’s rubber is. Softer rubber grips the road better, but wears sooner. Don’t go for below 300. If you don’t drive very much (less than 30,000km per year, as a rule of thumb), go for tires with a relativelly low treadwear, for extra grip. The theory is that at a rating of 100 (The DOT “Standard”, just above DOT-approved racing tires) the tire should sustain 30,000 miles of driving, but this refers to smooth highway driving in ambinet temperatures and not over long durations of time. In practice, the ability to dictate tire tread life based on this data is unrealistic.

An average road tire of about 11kg (with a maximal sway of 0.5%) will be composed like this: 3kg of seven to eight natural rubber compounds, and another 3kg of five synthetic rubber compound; 2.5kg of black carbon; one half of a kilo of steel, and another half kilo for the tire’s heel, and a similar weight for Synthetic fabrics (Rion, Polyester, etc…). 1.5kg of around 40 types (!) of resins, adhesives, pigments, anti-ozonants, anti-oxidants, softeners, Cobalt and other chemicals.

The tire is built over a period of time that usually takes over ten minutes (but in big, automized factories can take as little as three minutes!) and much longer for big tires and racing tires (which are made using special machinary and a lot of manual work). The process begins with mixing the hot rubber with carbon black (a cheap anti-radiant and heat-ressistant substance) and the other chemicals mentioned above, which are than cut into long “mats” of 80 centimeters. The mats are than cut and extruded to create a single tread, sidewall or innerliner. They are than checked so that they are just at the right size and weight. Simultanously, the textiles that are designated to be used in that tire are rubberized by putting them into a caulderon of hot rubber. The fybers are organised by code so that they can be used for the right tire.

The internal layers are now fitted unto a drum (in a radial tire, two drums) to form the rough shape of a tire. This “raw” tire is not put into a vulcanization chamber where it is being heated with sulphur at a temperature of 85 to 150 degrees celsius, for a duration that depends mainly on the depth of the rubber layer, where each milimeter needs about seven minutes of vulcanization. This also frees trapped air between the layers, and the airosion of that trapped air forms the little “studs” on the face of the tire. Big truck tires can be vulcanized for five hours!

Physics behind Tires

The tires contacts the road via a small contact patch which is divided into the small rubber fybers that make up the tire. As the tire is rotated, a given rubber fyber is loaded with the car’s weight as it comes against the road surface. The downforce generated by the car’s mass multiplied the force of gravity (the perpendicular euclidian vector of constant downward acceleration of 9.8m/s) creates an equall reaction known as the “normal force” (N) which, multiplied by the coefficient of friction of both the fyber and the tarmac, creates a gripping force (adhesion) which is professionaly known as static friction. Therefore, Fs=Nμ=μmg.

The reason is simple: The weight (vertical loading) deforms the tread element so that it is crammed into the small undulations of the abrasive road surface. However, the equation does not create a constant graph. The rubber has limitations that, if exceeded, would make it rupture and slide. When the rubber elastic properties are being fully untilized or under-exploited, Tmas>F, the result is for the tire to grip the road surface. If Tmax<F than the tire would slide and start to interact with the road with kinetic friction.

Heat is another important factor: When the fyber heats up, it will become softer and the coefficient of friction would increase. However, beyond a certain temperature, it would melt down and the tire will roll over a layer of molten rubber rather than on tarmac, reducing the grip levels. When the road is hot, it also makes the loose tar and the greasy materials (semi-burnt fuel, dripped oil, greasy car dirt, dust and sand, tire rubber residue) defuse towards the surface and reduce grip. Most people believe that the significance of tires is increased in the winter, where in action the tire is equally important over the whole year.

When we add forces of acceleration in any direction, we force the tire tread elements to distort in another direction too. The tire itself will begin to roll faster or slower than the car and this will distort the contact patch forward or back accordingly and create forces of acceleration or deceleration (negative acceleration). The formula dictates that the amount of relative slippage (s) by precent at this time would be S=100(1-[rw/V]), where R is the tire’s radius and W is the tire’s velocity, while V is the car’s velocity. Through empiric research, it is known that tires perform best (on tarmac) when the slippage is about 30% or slightly lower. Beyond that point the performance drops suddenly.

When a side force is introduced, the tire rubber deforms sideways so that the tread keeps on pointing forward while the wheel itself is turned aside. The rubber eventually turns, but always in a smaller angle than the wheel. This slip angle gives us a series of phenomenons that determind our cornering performance and safety: The lateral force (Fy) created by the lateral distortion (Pneumatic trail) of the slip angle is greatest in the rear-inside corner, creating torque that resists the turning of the wheel. This is known as Aligning Torque (Mz) and it is the origin of steering feel and the thing that makes the steering wheel return to straight if you let go of it.

The tire’s slip angle also limits the car’s critical cornering speed. In theory, the maximum safe cornering speed will be defined by calculating the equation mv²/r = mgμ (which adds up to v=√g μr). However, looking at this equaton by itself might be misleading, since it might give the false assumption that the parameters of friction and cornering radius are constant where in fact they are not. When you increase the slip angle you decrease the cornering radius. The reason is that the cornering radius is defined as the radian between the the center of the corner and the car’s center of gravity. While the weight transfer puts the center of gravity away from the center of the corner, this center (defined as the meeting of the perpendiculars of the four wheels) is moved inside, making the center of the corner smaller and the radius — tighter, reducing the speed in which the corner can be safely negotiated.

Tire wear and Aging

Tires and roads polish each other. As a result, the tire gets worn. As they wear out, the tread depth is reduced and the tire’s ability to drain water on a wet road is reduced. The legal limit in most countries is 1.6mm, usually ellapsed as a safer 2mm. Most tires also have six to nine tread wear indicator bars that become levels with the face of the tread when it has worn to this level. The indicators are lined up with the shoulder indicator, which is marked by a triangle or by numbers.

In practice a tire with 3mm or less (and 4mm in countries with a hard winter) is dangerous and should be replaced. In 60mph, with 2mm of water, each tire drains one gallon of water per second. Reduce the tread depth (14mm) to 3mm and the tire will fail and give you an overall grip level like driving on snow!

The tread does not increase grip on the dry. A slick tire is more grippy because it places more rubber against the pavement. However, when a treaded tire gets worn, it means that the soft layer of rubber is shaved and the stiffer layers of rubber (used for structural rigidity) are exposed. The tread also helps to disperse heat, so bald tires are bad. However, it’s important to understand that modern tires don’t wear out so quickely, and they will have to be replaced long before the tread gets worn, because of other kinds of wear.

The first kind of wear is a result of “Heat Cycles,” where the tire heats up and cools down under changes of weather or while driving. The rubber expands and contracts, untill it looses some of it’s elastic nature and becomes dry and sometimes even visually cracky. Also, the different layers of rubber, and the polyster and steel, all expand at a different rate, so the layers end up seperated.

Under driving, serious wear will occur at between 50 to 80,000km, depending on how hot the weather is, how agressive the driving style, how much driving is done in highways or with heavy loads, and how carefully are the tires inflated and periodically rotated. The common standard is 70,000km — beyond this point, the tire loses about 50% of it’s abilities! However, many people don’t drive so much, and their tires have to be replaced due to aging.

The tires suffer from the changes of weather from night to day and over the year, they suffer from sun radiation (mainly UVB) and effects of Oxygen, moisture and salt in the air. The effect of aging is acute, even if no visible signs of it are seen on the tire. Having said that, this kind of wear can often be seen as cracks in the edges of the tread. Tires that remain unmoved will in fact deteriorate more notably that tires which are driven at some rate or another. A slight heat and hystersis created by using the tires, will create chemical reactions which can help increase aging-ressistance abilities.

Also, tires that remain mounted on a car which is standing still for a long period of tire, will form a “flat spot” because the weight of the car will sit permenantly on one point of rubber. In this case it’s advised to inflate the tires to just below their full inflation rate. Even stacked tires can exhibit wear when they are placed one over the other. A standing tire often attracks insects too.

The tire should be replaced within a time spawn of three to four years. Older standards of six years relate only to the tire’s strutcutral well-being. I.e. After six years the tire at risk of failing, but modern tires don’t fail all that much. It far more critical to relate to the tire’s ability to produce grip and to stop you when you need to stop in a hurry, at which case three years are more than enough. Even after two years there is a notable difference of 15 to 20%!

Three years is a good standard for countries with a hot weather in the summer. It’s possible for the tire to last a few extra months if it’s regularly parked in the shade. In cold contries, it’s possible to keep tires for four years, and towards five years if carefully parked in the shade. Aging is the reason why I recommended for driver with a low annual milleage to choose soft tires, because they would have to replace those tires due to aging, and not the wear at the tread.

The age of the tire is the only data which is encrypted “into” the sidewall, within a round frame. It is seen as four figures, standing for a week in the year: “2011” stands for a tire made in the 20th week of 2011. “5208” — a tire from the 52nd (last) week of 2008. This tire should have been replaced by now. Old tires from the 90s, have three figures with an additional mark of a greek “delta”. “129^” — the 12th week of ’99.

The mechanism of Tire Aging

Various elements cause tires to age:

1. Sunlight: The effect of the photons and the UV-B radiation cause dryness and lost of the elastic properties of the rubber over the outside sidewall. The effects are greatly reduced (but not eliminated) by parking in the shade and by using different kinds of materials on the tires’ sidewalls.

2. Oxygen and Ozone: Ozone is a heavy Isotope of oxygen which appears around electric circuits and in tropical areas. The effect of oxygen always exists and it also exists inside the tire.

3. Temperature changes: The constant changes of temperatures while driving, during the movment relative to the sun,  over the day and during the whole year, make the tire heat up and cool down (“heat cycle”). The heating rubber expands and contracts again when it cools down. The problem is that eventually some of the elastic qualities are lost during this repititive process.

Another problem is that the tire is made of several rubber compounds, as well as a series of internal layers of steel, hard rubber, polyester and other substances. The result is that each layer expands at a different rate and they end up seperating. Another reason is airosion and lost of the anti-oxidants, anti-ozonants, anti-radiants and carbon black inside the tire. The front wheels are also effected by the engine’s heat on the inside shoulder.

4. Strain: The flex of the rolling tire makes the rubber, as it dries, to crack. Wear and abrasion occur on the outside, lateral and downward load deepen the cracks and the contact with objects on the road also effects the tire.

5. Moist and wetness also cause swelling of the rubber, lost of elastic properties and deepens the cracks. Salt in the air around the sea also causes this effect. This effect is all around the tire, including on the inside.

6. Pollutants: Pollutants in the air, including carbon monoxide, fuel drops and dust contac the tire and destroy it’s molecules, making the rubber soft. Dust and such dirt enter the existing aging/weather cracks and effect the tire ever more dangerously. With stored or unmoved tires, the dirt often hosts insectoids that make the wear more grave.

This also relates to a known problem of summer driving: Many people percieve tires as being important in the wet season. In fact, most road hazards are presented to us during the summer: Hot weather and heavy traffic wear down the tarmac agregates to reduce grip, tires gets far more worn and aged due to heat and milleage, and the road surface fills up with pollutants like loose tar, dirt and sand, dropped oils from cracky gaskets and exhausts, semi-burnt petrol, greasy car dirt and other chemical agents that create glare (looks like water on the road up ahead), deterioates tires but also reduces grip.

When the road surface is hot, the tire achieves working temperature faster, but simultanously this kind of grease gets diffused and the road holding is reduced overall, especially where there is even slight presence of moist or water, like during a summer rainfall, morning mist or nightly dew, or a misfire from urban water sprinklers. The heat also makes the rubber melt under sudden high-speed braking which, along with typically more loaded cars, higher speeds and reduced tire pressure (as the air defuses out of the tire faster as well), as well as reduced aerodynamic drag, make stopping distances larger than in the wet. The tires are also more prone to fail in this hot weather, or even to peel off of the rim in extreme conditions. Conclusion: Tires are equally important over the whole length of the year!

Tire Shine

Many materials supposed to make tires shine don’t do the job quite right. Many of them are oil-based and might cause the tires to deteriorate, but some of them can be helpful. If you want, you can make a cheap, home-made liquid that can be used at least on the tire’s outside sidewall once every three weeks, to reduce weather cracking:

Mix hot water with some fresh lemon juice, a bit of vinegar, sylicon from some kind of gel or blam and a bit of olive oil. A bucket of water with two spoons of juice, two spoons of vinager and one spoon of olive oil, a bit of sun screen and 1/4 cup of said sylicon — clean the tire and than rubb this mixture onto the outer sidewalls and maybe inside the tread challens (not on the rubber that’s supposed to touch the road!).

Whenever using any kind of tire shine material, note that the tire aging process is not necessarily going to be very profoundly influenced. The gloss might keep it looking shiny, where in fact the tire might be extremlly aged, and don’t forget that the tread ages too. If carefully taken care off, the tires could live a bit of over four years, or 5.5 years in countries with colder weather. So, the suggestion to replace tires once every three to four years remains, but with a good treatment, the tires can maintain their original properties longer across the given service period, improving safety.

Rubber is a polymer,  i.e. a long chain or macro-molecules that interconnect in a three-dimensional space, with the aid of special adhesives. When heat and Ionazing radiation (UVB and UVA) hit the surface of the polymer, they cause the solvents and adhesives to dissolve in a chemical process of defusion. The lost of those chemical agents, along with the heat, makes the polymer molecules generate new connections that might create a chemical shear that could tear them apart. Sylicon can filter out some of the sunrays and the UV, while reducing the heat and contact with moist and oxygen, and preventing some of the solvents from escaping.

Working Temperature

Tires have a working temperature that make them less grippy in cold mornings. It takes a decent amount of driving to get a tire’s tread warmed up (around twenty minutes) and performance tires are much more dependant on temperature and will not build up to heat -especially on worn tarmac -making them less grippy than normal tires. Tire grip also varies depending on debries: A short cut through a dirt road can cover the tires in dirt that adds a bit of weight, but also reduces the grip levels from 0.7 to 0.55 or so (it will wear off after a few single miles of driving). Mud or snow can clug up a tire and cause more significant additions of weight (a kilogram or more) and drastic drops in grip level, and even wet tires are ungrippy relative to dry ones. Even a seemingly clean tire has some dust and sand in it and will have more grip after it’s scrubbed down.

Tire inflation

Just as important as tire wear is tire pressure. Modern Radial tires are not as sensitive to under-inflation as bias-ply tires. Having said that, it’s importance is still very large, and is just important as having new tires. Driving with under-inflated tires can lead to grip levels that might resemble driving on a wet road, where it is perfectly dry. Tires naturally lose air at an average rate of 2PSIG per month, but that’s just an average, low quality tires will lose even more on some tires, and especially in hot summer conditions, and in the front wheels which are effected by the heat of the engine and it’s load.

So the recommendation to check air pressure once a month is not a very good one. Air pressure should be checked once every two weeks. This would also make the required “tweaks” for the pressure to be little, so it can be done faster than it takes to refuel the car. The pressure should be checked and inflated on cold tires, and with a reliable pump and gage.

Finding the manufacturer’s specifications of air pressure can be quite an expedition in times: The sticker can appear on the B-pillar on both front doors (below window height) or on the door frame itself in about that height, or even on the A-pillar when the door is opened. It might appear under the hood itself or likewise in the trunk. They might appear on the gas tank cover (in German cars) or in the glove compartment, as well as over the wheel-arches and inside the car’s handbook. Trust those specifications and not the ones that might appear in the gas station. If you cannot find it (the sticker might fall off) look at an identical car or use google. It’s worthwhile to know that modern light automobiles operate at around 30PSIG.

A change of even two-three PSIG can facilitate a subtle but noticable difference, and make dramatic changes to tire wear on long highway drives. A seemingly small change of a reduced inflation by 20% can be classified as dangerous, because the car’s stopping distance, wear and chance of failure increase by about the same amount. In wet surfaces there is less wear, but the grip levels and stopping distance are reduced far more drastically than on the dry.

Under such under-inflation, tires can be seen deforming laterally by several inches, even in slow cornering, where any attempt to approach the limit will make the tire distort extremlly, leaving not one or two milimeters of rubber between the rim and road. (Think about it, a tire deforms between 20 to 200 million times in it’s service period!)This can make the car slide in a very uncontroable manner. In extreme situations, the sliding tire can give a feeling of “jolts” which can be later seen on the pavement as darker areas of the skid mark, where the tire’s sidewall was flat against the ground. This risks you with having the tire peel off of the rim or getting caught in a bump of the road, both leading to a roll-over, or in having the tire seriously damaged by getting pinched under the rim and/or getting it’s fabric and steel wools rupture around the area of the tire’s shoulder.

When tires are driven or even exposed to very hot sun, they heat up and the air inside them expands. A tire with 28PSIG might show a reading of 30PSIG, and you might think it’s well-inflated, where in fact it is still under-inflated! It’s important to estimate the heat in the tire. After ten minutes and/or two kilometers of driving in the sun at even 50km/h (30mph), your tires might be warm enough to require an extra 5% of pressure. If you drive for 15 minutes you will need an extra 10%. 20 minutes of high-speed driving can increase the air by 15%, and 20% after half a hour, and even more in a hot day.

Usually, an 10% addition solves the dillemas. The heat in the tire can felt by putting the back of your hand on the sidewall of the tire, near the tread. Don’t expect the front and rear tires to heat up symmetrically. Also, don’t excpet the tires to cool down very quickly. It can take even three hours to disperse the heat of driving for forty minutes on a highway in a sunny day.

A tool that can help you is a personal tire gage. The cheapest and most simple is the pencil gage. It is a simple device made of a one-way pressure valve leading into a vacuum-chamber connected to a spring. You can easily find and purchase one in a very cheap price, with a pressure reading range of up to 40 to 60 PSIG. This kind of gage will be accurate down to about 0.5 of a PSIG, and be resistant to blows and shocks, unlike digital gages and dial gages. The most effective gage is a 0 to 60, oil-filled, rubber-encased dial gage.

This kind of gage enables to measure the air pressure at home and follow the changes when the tire heats up. Also, it enables to confirm the readings of the gas station pump, especially an analog pump with a handlebar, although it’s recommended to ensure that the pump is doing a good job if it’s a brand new digital one. They are often neglected, knocked about, and suffer from bad filtering, misfire in the electric engine, bad lubrication, and other problems that make it “miss” the right pressure.

Effects of under-inflation

The underinflated tire becomes softer and generated a wider profile. However, the softness makes it fold in the center of the tread, lifting parts of the tread off of the pavement. The center of the tread is more durable, grippy and is better in draining water. It is also directly responsible for accelerating and slowing down the car, so under-inflation dramatically increases stopping distances. The effects become much more acute in the wet, where the folds catch water inside them and make the tire skim and “hydroplane” very easily. The tread blocks twist and close up and the tire recieves a concave shape that disables it’s ability to penetrate the layer of water.

The car’s cornering is also compromised, because the softer tires is pushed by side forces so the sidewall cramms towards the outside of the corner, and twists the tire. This increases wear and, under severe under-inflation, can be heared as lound screetches (under-inflated tires are more loud). Slight under-inflation improves ride comfort, but the effect is bearly felt. Beyond that point the tire becomes too thin and cannot dampen bumps, and the narrow tread creates little turbulances of air, that generate more tire noise.

The tires generate more heat, and are in a risk of blow-outs, and slide earlier, albeit more progressively, but with less control over the slides, due to the sideways distortion of the sidewall. They increase wear on other car parts like brakes, drivetrain and steering linkages. Underinflation is useless, save in very specific situations of off-roading and even than the inflation should not be reduced by more than 20% for dunes or deep mud. Over a tire’s life-spawn, differences of as little as 0.5 of a PSIG can make a difference on it’s wear, and in racing tires the accuracy goes down to single tenths of a PSIG (with use of advanced instrumentation like tire temperature probes).

Effects of over-inflation

Over-inflation is better than under-inflation, in any day! Over-inflation does not cause the tire to blow up, unless you fill it well beyond it’s maximum capacity (which is well above the “maximum pressure” limit stated on the tire’s sidewall). An overinflated tire becomes stiffer and hence distorts less and generates less heat. It makes the tire recieve a concave shape, so it grips the road more with it’s center and not the shoulders.

However, modern radial tires won’t suffer from excessive wear due to this kind of inflation (although there is more wear than in normal driving), and will maintain higher grip because the tire will not bend so much under cornering. Within a range of about 10% of over-inflation, the tire will generate more grip than with proper inflation! The tires will react more instantly to driver’s inputs. They will also break traction more suddenly and with less feel, but will provide better control even during slides, and supply a more accurate feedback than under-inflated tires. If you drive the car hard, on race-tracks or while roaming winding roads, over-inflation can reduce wear.

While it is recommended to drive with the appropriate pressure recommended by the manufacturer, it’s advised to prefer over-inflation over under-inflation when in doubt, and even choosing to drive at all times with an addition 2-3 PSIG is very acceptable. If your tires have a problem with noise or wet grip, you might choose to experiment with such slight over-inflation to try and solve those problems. Overinflation is also used in performance driving, on winding mountain roads as on the race track, where it in fact reduces the wear. Do know, however, that over-inflation will increase tire wear on rugged surfaces (unlike on tarmac roads). Always remember than superflous pressure can be manually bled out at home.

Tire Marks

When investigating a crash area, tire marks can be quite informative. A good inspection can lead to conclusions as to the abrasiveness of the road surface and grip levels of the tire, as well as to the actions of the driver at the scene. In cars without ABS, strong braking on dry surfaces can be seen as black skid-marks of molten rubber. Depending on the speed, grip level of the tire, force of braking and abrasiveness of the surface, the skid mark might range from hardly noticeable, to a uniform black strap.

In many situations, one can see a relatively light tire mark, which is riddled with little pieces of torn rubber. This is characteristic to grip and temperature levels in a mid-range level. In a more extreme situation, there would be a clear black mark, in the form of the tire’s tread. This can also indicate the tire’s pressure, as under-inflated tire would normally create a darker skid mark where the shoulders of the tire will also leave a mark.

ABS, along with benefits of maintained steerability, stability and reduced stopping distances (in most cases) usually removes the skid marks, unless it is a very archaic model, a particularly abrasive or hot surface or a heavy vehicle like a truck.

The molten rubber indicates high grip levels and loads of braking and gravity, but it also indicates that the braking is longer than it should be, since the molten rubber partitions the tire’s surface from the road, reducing the overall grip. It also brings a high probability of a flat spot. Even braking steady from 40mph to a stop on abrasive, hot tarmac can lead to a small flatspot (in a size of milimeter or so), which can be felt as a juddering ride, and can be repaired or flattened by driving over it. Simiar flat spots can be caused by leaving the car stationary for long periods of time (a few months) on a low tire pressure.

A wet or slippery surface usually reduces this kind of wear very significantly, but some unpaved surfaces can increase it by chipping the tread. A cold road surface can also be quite helpfull, reducing tire wear and stopping distances by a few precious precents (up to 10%!).

Sideways sliding can be seen as rougly straight-line skid marks, indicating understeer caused by a sliding of the front wheels, or spiraling tire marks with an inconsistent shade, indicating oversteer. The understeer tire marks are usually quite solid and wide, but become more faint along the way as the cornering radius increasing, where the oversteered car will sharpen the angle of the sliding tire from millisecond to millisecond, and also make the front tires slide. Sudden black stains can be interprated as the sidewall cramming unto the road surface due to a bump or the function of the suspension, or as a moment of collision with some object that generated resistance against the tire.

Load on tires

Situations where you might be in doubt, other than hot tires, can also be when the car is loaded with luggage and/or passengers. Manufacturers recommend a different pressure for a fully loaded car and sometimes for a semi-loaded car. Even three adult passengers can be considered semi or even fully loaded. Some tires (snow, mud and all-terrain tires) will even be sensitive to the change of load formed by one passenger.

Modern tires are made to carry weights which exceed their own weight between 40 to almost 300 times their own weight (the highest value in achieved in aircrafts and very heavy trucks). The increase of weight increases the downforce that gives the tire more grip (based on the formula mv²/r = mgμ). So, if you have three adult passengers in the back, your back tires should have more grip, right? No, because the increased mass also increases the lateral force experienced by the tires, so the two effects should cancel each other out. However, the coefficient of friction is also reduced (slightly, though) under extra load, so over all there is a reduction of grip. The extra air pressure allows this effect to be canceled out so the grip level is overall increased

It can be beneficial to inflate tires with nitrogen. Nitrogen molecules escape through the innerliner at a much slower pace, and they don’t allow moist to enter the tire and improve heat desperse. However, nitrogen inflation is not crucial to your safety, and it’s possible to yield good results with normal air, by periodically replacing the air inside the tire with fresh air, to get rid of moist, dust and chemicals/rubber dust inside the tire. This is best done when the car is lifted and with a personal pump, but it is possible to bleed out about 70% of the pressure safely when the car is parked and leveld, and immediately reinflate at the gas station, once every six months. As a rule of thumb, by applying slight pressure against the valve, you will bleed out one PSIG for every ten seconds. This changes on each individual nuzzle, on the amount of pressure applied and the form of the object used to apply pressure.

Tire pressure can also be monitored via a RPSM system fitted unto the rims (very highly recommended! ), and through a less efficient system where changes in the air pressure are detected by the ABS sensors. It’s still important to periodically use a reliable gage for a manual check. To ensure proper inflation with the gas station digital pump, you might choose to inflate each tire twice. The system will make adjustments and reach a pressure closer to what is necessary.

It’s important to keep the nuzzle caps on. If they get lost, the nuzzle will pick up dust and dirt, which will apply pressure against the valve to lead to a slow but constant lost of air pressure. It’s also important to realise that these rules apply for all FIVE tires, reserve tire included. It losses air just as much as all other tires, and it is important for it to be properly inflated. It’s actually better to inflate it with a few additional PSIG, due to the lost of air over time. Some cars have a thin fifth wheel (due to reason based on cost, size and weight) that is usually inflated in a very high pressure (often the maximal possible pressure). Also remember than reserve tires placed on the rear bumper or under the hood, wear out just as much as the tires on the wheels. Have it replaced periodically.

Another note: Tire pressure cannot be judged visualy in modern radial tires. They have a reinforced sidewall and they lose air pressure at a slow, unnoticed rate. The result is that even when the tire is under-inflated by 50% (which increases milleage by 10%, tire wear by 70%, pollution by 45%, dry grip by 30% and wet grip by 70%!), will be bearely noticable when not moving. Kicking, pushing and looking at the tire is not going to show any difference and the naked eye of a skilled individual will at best notice that the shoulders are slightly crammed unto the road.  While moving, however, and especially while cornering at a conservative speed, the tire’s sidewall wil distort extremlly.

Tire gauges

The simple dial gauge works by use of a flexible pipe that is forced to erection when the air pressure runs through it. This effects a wire that turns a set of gears that rotate the clock. The clock operates better in it’s midrange and when the resistance to it’s movement is reduced by use of oil filling. The problem is with the multiple mechanical parts, especially the gearing. Some dial gauges are shaped like “cams” which involve a more complex gearing system, which is far more suspicious for misreading and malfunctions. Do not trust such a gauge as it can be off by 3 to 18 PSIG!

A pencil gauge is by far more simple. If is simply formed by a chamber with a sprung piston on one side and a one-side valve (normally a scharder valve) which pushes a bar that specifies the correct inflation. These are less accurate than electronic or dial gauges, but are more reliable than public gauges and will not be knocked out of callibration by blows. A good pencil gauge can be as accurate as 0.5 of a PSIG.

The air pump itself is a reciprocating Air compressor which uses a series of pistons to pump the air from the chamber to the tire. There is a lost of efficiency through the operation of the pistons as they become worn, of the operation of the electric engine that operates them; the air regulator can be knocked out of alignment. There is a leak of air from the edges of the hose (which can often be heared very audibly). The pumps have been found none-accurate by checks in the US and UK, and they are subsequentally adjusted in advance so that they fill “too much” air so they will result in overinflation rather than under-inflation, if they do miss the right amount of air. It’s also a good idea to let the pump blow some air at the ground to see if it drops water (due to water vapor that has not been filtered or drained properly).

Tire placement and rotation

While it is possible to purchase two pairs of tires that share similar treats, it’s highly advised to purchase a foursome of identical tires. These tires should of course fit the rims of the car, and the index of load and speed relevant for the car. Modern radial tires have a steel belt that becomes twisted in the direction of the steering angle (based on the wheel alignment), so it cannot be rotated around like old tires.

The solution is to take the tire place it on a different rim while keeping it rolling in the same direction. The tires should be “rotated” this way once every eight to fifteen thousand kilometers (rotate it at 10,000 kilometers as an average), so the front-left tire is moved to the rear-right rim and vice versa. This cancels out the wear caused by the alignment of the front wheels and the application of forces through the front in a front-wheel driven car, as well as by the features or normal urban driving where the right side tends to meet curbs and tighter cornering efforts. The rotation is particularly relevant where the car is front-wheel driven, powerfull and where the driving style is not very smooth or gentle. Driving in towns and winding roads also accelerates wear and requires a replacement at 10,000 (if not at a mere 6000!) instead of 15,000.

When tires get worn, the popular advice is to place the good tires on the rear. The front wheels of the car tilt when you turn the wheel and they rotate you into corners. The rear wheels have to keep the car in line with the front wheels. Worn rear wheels, resulting in a slide (or blow-out) will make the car slide out and spin around (oversteer). If the front wheels are worn and slide (or blow-out) they would slide forward and out of the corner, known as understeer. This kind of slide is easily felt through the steering, and is more naturally recovered from by slowing down or even turning the wheel more tightly into the corner.

However, it’s important to understand the front wheels carry most of the weight, sprung and unsprung, and deliver forces of braking, cornering and acceleration onto the road. 70 to 90% of the braking force comes from the front (based on the forward weight transfer), so having bad front tires is like having bad brakes. So, the only sane advice is that the good wheels go on all four wheels! Tires are relativelly cheap, and if one or two have been worn, now is the time to replace all four of them. You cannot compromise your braking or your stability.

Tire damage

Another kind of wear is physical wear such as buldges, cracks, scratches and alike. These are caused by various conditions:

– A blow-out due to overheating. Will be caused by driving with too much load and/or too little air pressure, while moving at a high speed (above 80km/h) for long periods of time (at least 30 minutes) in hot days. The sudden heat and movement of the layers will make them become apart and the tire will blow out. The blowout will cut the tread from the sidewalls due the massive heat buildup in the thick shoulders. Tread detachment can occur due to under-inflation, combined with stress (sudden steering) and other problems like excessive load or misaligned wheels.

Declamation of parts of tread is caused by the tread being punctured (without reaching the tire’s interal layers) in an old tire. The puncture developes into a large crack when the tire is driven. Cuts and Gouging are caused due to contact with the chassis (wheel arches) due to misapplied spacers, wide rims, excessive steering angles or a twist of the tin.Likewise, infamous “Flat spots” will happen due to hard braking (without ABS) on dry surface, even for relatively short intrevals, sliding or when a car is parked and not driven over a long time. Stains and swells will be normaly caused due to chemicals around the tires, mainly oils.

Other kinds of wear include:

  • A pinch that occurs under low inflation when going over a bump or curb, resulting is swelling.
  • A cut caused by a sharp object being projected by the car unto the sidewall.
  • A scuff caused by contact with a curb
  • Circumferential wear around the middle of the sidewall, indicating low air pressure and a strong side force in a high-profile tire
  • Air pockets that occur due to a manufacturing defect or sudden blow from a curb, making air move from the innerliner and in between the other layers of the rubber.
  • Sidewall rupture while driving on a tire that has been deflated or hit by something.
  • Black powder inside the tire, as a result of constant driving on very low air pressure
  • Diagonal wear: A series of flat spots running diagonally across the tire, indicating a misaligned rear suspension in both camber and toe angles. This wear creates a whooming road noise.
  • Distortion of the tread: The tire lugs recieve wear like “heel and toe” wear (when the front edges of the lugs are worn) which occurs a strong application of engine torque through the drive wheels when they are under-inflated. Other tires will exhibit a “feathering” wear on the lateral edges of the lugs, due to alignment problems, resistance of wind and other reasons.
  • Cupping: Caused due to wobble or worn dampers, the tires develop a “wave” like wear formation around the tread.
  • Distortion of the tire carcas: Caused by infiltration of moist through cuts in the tire, making the steel nets rust and distort, changing the tire from it’s round shape. Nowadays very rare.
  • Peeling: Under extreme under-inflation and a sudden load of cornering and/or braking, the tire can peel off of the rim, causing it to dig into the road and potentially roll the car.
  • Tread Chipping: Air bubbles and chipping of the tread when over-inflated tires are driven over rugged terrain.
  • Tread Splice: A manufacturing fault where a lateral crack appears over the tread and develops into a rupture
  • Split Cords: Where the cords inside the tire create a lateral bludge of the tread and both shoulders.
  • Bad repairs where the tire’s heel is damaged by the fitting machine, or where a small puncture is being repaired with molten rubber from the inside, or with a long cord. These repairs were once custom in bias-ply tires, but turned dangerous with radial tires, especially under loads. Punctures in the shoulders are irrecoverable.

There are also kinds of wear that are not dangerous or important: Darker lines that appear across the tread after a certain amount of wear. This is a result of the various kinds of rubber compounds fitted onto a single tires: The manufacturer might choose to fit softer rubber around the shoulders, for good cornering.

Others types of “alledged” wear are colored spots along the tire that indicate where shallow or thick spots of the rubber are placed. Sorts of bludging that occur as a result of where the rubber layers overlap, or used as tread depth indicators. All of these are natural products of the tire’s construction.

Tires are also likely to suffer from road debries: Little stones retented into the tread, sand and dust on the face of the tire and etcetra. The effect of those variants is not detrimental, but they do reduce road holding (which is part of why race-car drivers zig-zag the track when the heat-up the tires) and can cause aging and stress related wear to deteriorate. It’s a good idea to get the tires cleaned when you rotate them.

Excessive wear in the center of the tread or shoulders is not likely to occur due to underinflation in modern steel belted radials, but more likely due to misalignment or bad springs. The effects can be felt withint three months or 4,000km.

Another kind of wear is caused by little stones that get stuck inside the tread. This stones don’t usually cause damage, and they are thrown out of the tires while driving, but it is best to clear out whatever stones you might find, as an occasional bump can make them protrude deeper and harm the tread, and they harm it’s ability to dispers heat. Truck tires have an angeled tread to prevent so-called “stone retention.”

Storing tires is a problematic subject. They are best stored in areas off with a constant temperature of less than 25 degrees celsius and above freezing temperatures, with no change of temperature of over 0.15 degrees celsius, in the shade (especially not around neon lighting), with dry air and low ozone-oxygen concentration (under 0.05 particles per million). The compartment should not be radiant-abosrbing (like black or bright surfaces) and clear of wetness, grease or dust.

If the tires are fitted on a rim, they should be inflated at one BAR (10KPa), stacked and the order of the stack should be reversed every four weeks and re-organised alltoghether once every six weeks. Free tires should be left standing, and rolled over once every four weeks over a machine. The tires should be covered with a sylicon spray. The use of such sprays and other substances during the tire’s actual use is less recommended, as most of them don’t work and many might do harm.

Reading the Tire

The outer circumference of the tire, below the shoulders, include an triangular indicator of wear. It’s point marks the edge of the tread’s shoulder, which should also mean the edge of the area that grips the road. Under very low inflation and/or faulty camber angle, wear might be exhibited beyond this mark, which is not wanted. Modern tires are somewhat adjusted to this possibility, so the external circumference of the sidewall includes a rugged rubber surface, like a rumble strip, which also helps to disperse heat.

Beyond this circumference are imprinted the first stats over the rubber.These include the name of the manufacturer and the name of the tire, as well as it’s classification as “Radial”, “Bias-Ply”, “All steel”, “stel-belted” and “Tubeless”/”Tubetype.” It also specifies the tire sizes and destination (like snow tires, mud tires, etc…) and the required speed and load index and maybe a letter than means that the tire is designated for a certain car (Like N for Porsche).

At the small circumference, near the heel of the tire, are printed the data of maximum pressure, maximum load and American (DOT), Japanese (JIC) and/or European (Eu) stamps are found with the specification of country of origin and the tire’s age code. On the heels themselves, covered by the lip of the rim, is the barcode of the tire.

Tire Size

Let’s look at an average tire of 195/60R15. What does it mean? “195” contributes the tire’s tread width, from shoulder to shoulder, in milimeters, which changes in up to 4% (in this case 78mm!) depending on inflation. “60” Contributes a certain aspect ratio which means that the height of the tire’s shoulder is equal to 60% of it’s width. This state also changes slightly (but significantly) with changes of tire pressure. R contributes the tire’s identity as a “Radial” and 15 is the width of the rim in inches.

This method is the “German” Method and it is widely used in Europe since the 70’s in light vehicles and progressively in light trucks. The American method can be used in this example: “31×10.5R15.” This tire has an external diameter of 31 inches, section width of 10.5 and an internal width (rim width) of 15 inches. Some tires have the same method without the section width data.

The aspect ratio is important because a bigger sidewall means more air and rubber used as a spring, but also more lateral motion of the shoulder under cornering. Low-profile tires are thus less comfortable and sharper, but also more grippy and compliant. Wider tires contribute by increasing grip levels, on the expense of a heavier tire, which increases gas milleage.

Speed Index

The speed index describes a speed where the tire, being fully loaded (based on the load index) and fully inflated (based on the maximum inflation state) will be critically damaged after ten minutes of driving. In practice, the actual speed a tire can sustain can be higher, in cold weather, normal loading and proper or slightly excessive inflation, or lower on hot roads (tarmac can heat to over 70 degrees celsius) with underinflated, misaligned, old or overloaded tires.

L = 120km/h
M = 130
N = 140
P = 150
Q = 160
R = 170
S = 180
T = 190
U = 200
H = 210

Load Index

The Load index is also determind at the maximum speed and with full inflation. It can therefore be theoretically possible to load the car beyond the stated amount, albeit being highly unrecommended. Bias-Ply tires either have a Ply Rating (specifying the amount of plies) and/or Load Range from A (two plies) to E (10 plies).

0 — 450 Kilograms
81 — 462
82 — 475
83 — 487
84 — 500
85 — 515
86 — 530
87 — 545
88 — 560
89 — 580
90 — 600
91 — 615
92 — 630
93 — 650
94 — 670
95 — 690
96 — 710
97 — 730
98 — 750
99 — 775
100 — 800
101 — 825
102 — 850
103 — 875
104 — 900


The “E” Approval is the European standard of all tires after 1997. It includes the “E” stamp (which can also be printed as a small “e” for tires in line only with directive 99/33/EEC), and a circulated (or rectangulated) number which is a code for the tire’s place of origin: A country code, followed by the numerical approval for the given brand. For instance, a tire with the first two figures of “E10” stands for a tire from Yugoslavia; where a tire with the last two last figures, “0U” stands for Ling-Long Tires from Shandong, China (Tires that were found to be highly inefficient in a certain test in Britian).

The American DOT approval has taken it a step further to specify in twelve letters to describe the exact origin of the tire, plus the date of production, which is the date I described above.

Other markings

Other tire markings include: An D or DA stamp (for “Defected” Tires), a Yellow dot which is a bit more dense and heavy than the rest of the tire. This is aligned with the heavy point of the rim, where the air nuzzle is placed. A red dot for a “protruding” spot on the tire, and lines and figures that are used in the manufacturing process to categorise the different layers, before they are extruded or mounted toghether. This process also creates the little “studs” of rubber than seem to cover the face of a new tire, formed by the escape of air bubbles from inside the layers when they are vulcanized.

The “dense” and “high” spots of the tire are discovered through the carefull inspection of the tire after it’s assembled in the factory. After being extruded, wrapped and vulcanized, the tire is checked with X-ray, weight and Uniformity. New tires are also wrapped in an external sylicon layer than wears off after 5000km or so.

Tire Plies

The tire also includes a specification for it’s plies and, in radials, for the plies of the sidewall and the plies of the tread. The plies include: External rubber layer for grip around the tread. Internal rubber layers for structural rigidity of the tread and sidewall. Belts of dual steel nets that reinforce the tire’s carcass, and than synthetic fabrics of one of these kinds:

1. Nylon: The first fabric applied into tires, nowadays replaced due to it’s “morning sickness” which made it deform until heated by driving. Older tires also used Cotton.

2. Polyester: The most popular replacement of nylon. Less rigid than nylon fabric, but does not distort. The Polyester can be produced in different densities for different qualities.

3. Rion: Good for ride comfort and grip (better hysteresis), but is vulnerable for moist, should it protrude through even shallow cuts of the tire. Replacing it with polyester and improving the steel cords reduced the amount of carcass distortions in modern tires.

4. Kevlar: A replacment for the steel nets because it provides better rigidity for the same weight (about four times as much!), although being more expensive and less resistant to punctures.

5. Inner-liner: The internal layer supposed to hold the air inside the tire. It is made of special synthetic rubber (usually Bromo Isobutylene) and an internal fabric layer.

Tread Patterns

The tread depends on the tire’s type. Normal road tires have a soft tread of about 8.5mm, while M&S tires will have a greater “void ratio” (i.e. more lugs). The tread ratio increases for mud tires, snow tires and special ice tires, and the rubber compound become more stiff. On the road, the greater “void ratio” means that a greater part of the rubber is not gripping the ground. However, it is required for dispersing heat and channeling water on wet roads.

However, on mud, snow and ice, the tread generates grip by biting into the road surface. Mud tires usually also “ridges” inside the tread that help push the chunks of mud (or snow) that get trapped in it, while a road tire will get “plugged.” Likewise, the edges of the tread are placed in a sharper angle relative to the road, which helps disperse the chuncks. The tread is even present on the shoulders, to provide grip by biting into the sides of wheel ruts in the mud or snow. These tires don’t have sips in the shoulders or on the tread. Those little “sips” are intended to give the tread some flexibility and to open up and sip water when it contacts the road, and than squirt them out as the tire continues to rotate. The sips are removed to improve the rigidity of the lugs in mud or snow tires.

These tread patterns are bad on dry tarmac roads as they will suffer from acute wear, produce a lot of vacuum and turbulances to create noise, and provide reduced grip. The more agressive or effective a mud tire is on mud, or a snow tire on the snow, the worst it is on the road. It’s bigger “chunks” of tread will produce a louder noise and it will be highly effected load. On such tires, even one passenger will increase stopping distances in sudden braking. Ice tires with nails will also damage the road surface. Snow or Winter tires are also effective during the winter when the road is not frozen, as the rubber compound is fit to the low temperature, where a summer tire will not provide sufficient grip. The same occurs when snow tires are used on the dry.

One interesting tire is a tire for dune-driving. These tires are round-shaped in all directions, including the section of the tread. It has no tread depth, and only little “flippers”, all designed for the tire to drive over the sand and not “bite” into it and create steps that will make it sink.

The tread on most tires is also devised in such a shape so that the tread is not the same on any “cube.” Each one is slightly different in shape and/or size. Even the most slim differences change the direction of air turbulence and make the different sounds that cancel each other out, to produce a noise below 75db (85 in DOT standards).

To a certain extent, the shape of the tread can be indicate it’s design: You can see trucks with front tires that are shaped with longitudinal “ribs.” The ribs offer a low rolling resistance (less wear and gas consumption), good steering control and good ventilation against heat build-up. The problem of this design is with longitudinal forces of strong braking and acceleration, especially on the wet.

The rear tires of the same trucks, as well as many SUV vehicles are formed as “lugs” that have grooves that open to the sides. These offer better grip, but still far from ideal on public roads, added to an increased rolling resistance and more noise. These wheels are good for the back of trucks or for light off-road use.

The classic road tire is formed in a way that divides it into “blocks.” This formation offers a good compromise between wet and dry performance, as well as between longitudinal and lateral wear. The downside is that the tire is heavier, more suspect to wear, sliding and noise than more complex designs. Most road tires comb

Detailed G60 Engine Guide

On the plus side, the engine is pretty much bullet-proof, and produces bucket loads of torque as well as being easily tuneable with some simple bolt on mods yielding some reliable bhp hikes. It is also a relatively simple four cylinder which means that most home mechanics should be able to do most jobs themselves.

Air Filter & Intake

The air filter determines what gets into your charger and what doesn’t. Ideally lots of air gets in and dirt stays out. It is essential that you never run a G60 with any kind of foam air filter. These are fine for normally aspirated engines but they do not filter as well as a paper or cotton gauze filter does. They allow grit into the charger that mixes with the oil in the charger to form a grinding paste that accelerates charger wear. The standard paper filters are fine but if you want a bit more grunt then use a cotton gauze filter (£30) in the standard airbox and remove the front intake trumpet from the airbox as well as drilling it out (see our airbox modding guide). This will allow more air into the charger and give a slightly louder induction roar.

If you want to go one stage further then a cotton gauze cone style induction kit will help but these are a bit more pricey (£150). These replace the airbox with a large cone shaped filter and improve breathing as well as giving a wicked induction roar. Ensure that you get one with a heat-shield to prevent the filter sucking hot air from the engine bay. Some people find the induction kits a bit loud so opt for retaining the stock airbox. You are unlikely to notice any performance difference between the cone filter and an aftermarket filter in a modded airbox.

Carbon canister removal

Underneath the airbox is the activated charcoal filter (or carbon canister). This neutralises petrol vapour from the fuel tank and feeds it into the engine under load. The charcoal is then regenerated by passing fresh air over it. After 100k or so the CC does very little and can be removed. This leaves a nice big hole under the airbox/induction kit and you can then run a bit of cold air ducting up through the hole to feed the intake system. If you retain the std airbox you need to cut a hole out of the bottom of it that matches the hole where the carbon canister used to sit. On the Corrado the cold air ducting can be run down to the off side brake cooling duct. You will find the external air temp sender attached to this brake cooling duct (on a Corrado) and a few people have been known to move this up to the intake area to monitor intake temperature.

Charger Servicing

The G-Charger runs with very tight tolerances and the bearings, oil seals and apex seals only have a finite life.


As a result the chargers need rebuilding on a regular basis depending on the state of tune they are in. As a rough guide the following intervals should be adhered to:

Std pulley every 45,000 miles
68mm pulley every 30,000 miles
65mm pulley every 20,000 miles

In addition to regular rebuilds the small drive belt that links the main shaft to the auxiliary shaft should be changed annually. As std these are 6mm wide but should be replaced with an 11mm one (£8.50) as available from suppliers such as G-Werks.


Check out our G60 rebuild guide to get an idea of what is involved. A standard rebuild is about £400 rising to £500 if you have some mods done at the same time.

Whilst the charger is apart it is worth considering having the upper chambers and exhaust ports flowed and enlarged to help the charger flow more air. You should check your charger on a regular basis to determine how healthy it is. As the unit wears the apex seals start to leak and so the charger produces less boost. The oil seals also start to go and the charger then begins to leak oil both externally and into the intake pipework.

On a regular basis you should remove the intake pipe and check the inside of the charger top chamber for oil as well as the soft rubber boost pipe between the charger and the intercooler. You can also remove the intake air temp sensor from the plastic pipe between the throttle body and intercooler and check this for oil. A fine misting of oil is acceptable but a large quantity of oil indicates that the charger needs attention. The boost levels can also be checked using a boost gauge function on the MFA (Corrado only). Use the following procedure:

Start engineMove the MFA selector to “2”Press and hold the MFA end button (keep holding)Stop engineStart engineRelease the MFA end button.Press the MFA End button one time.

You should now see 550-750 readings fluctuating with idle. Anything higher than 750 is probably not right (a vacuum leak possibly?). Much less than 550 is probably too much timing advance. Run the car to the redline in 3rd and 4th gears noting the highest readings you get

Running a standard 78mm pulley you should see 11psi if the charger is in good nick but a charger with a smaller pulley should make more than 11.6

400 – 17.8600 – 11.9800 – 5.91000 0 (Atmospheric pressure, charger is bypassed?)1200 2.9 psi (You have a major boost leak)1400 5.8 psi (Your charger is in very poor condition)1600 8.7 psi (Your charger would benefit from new apex strips)1800 11.6 psi (Good for stock pulley, needs new apex strips if 68mm pulley)2000 14.5 psi (Good for 68mm pulley on stock charger)2200 17.4 psi (Good for 68mm pulley on heavily ported charger)

Any more than this and you must ensure that the fuelling is seriously up to scratch At this point you are into the realms of different injectors, aftermarket engine management and so forth.

If you suspect a boost leak then examine all the intake pipe work very closely for damage. The soft rubber hoses leading to and from the intercooler are prone to splitting and the join between the two halves of the charger baffle box is also a problem area (silicon sealant or an RSR outlet should sort this out!).


Oil selection and condition is very important to the G60 engine, particularly to the charger. The G-Lader bearings are lubricated by engine oil fed in along a braided line and fed back to the sump via another line. Due to the tight tolerances within the charger the oil needs to be as thin as possible, for this reason the engine should not be driven hard until the oil is up to temperature and thus at the correct viscosity.

As most G60’s are cracking on for 100k we would not recommend using something as thin as Mobil 1 as this is likely weep out of every single gasket. A good compromise is a 10W40 oil, and ideally a fully synthetic one. Bearing in mind that oil changes are cheap and easy we would recommend an oil and filter change every 6,000miles or 12 months whichever is sooner. Obviously if you have had the engine rebuilt recently then go with fully synthetic 0/5W40 BUT remember that you must NOT run a rebuilt/new engine on thin fully synthetic oil until it has done a good 10k otherwise the oil is thin enough to get forced past the rings thus glazing the bores up (rebuild time!).

Another oil related weak-point of the G60 engine is the oil feed line for the charger. Although braided, the core is just a small diameter rubber pipe which perishes with age and ultimately blocks. This obviously starves the charger of oil and kills it. If you still have the original feed line on your car then it is likely to be tired and should be replaced. G-Werks and Pitstop Developments can sell you a vastly improved line with a Teflon composite core and more durable over-braid as well as high quality ends. These are about £20 but are ‘fit and forget’ items. The oil return line rarely needs attention as it is a larger diameter, but it is still worth checking it for signs of damage.

Superchargers generate a lot of heat and if you own a std Corrado G60 then you are likely to see oil temperatures up to 130 degrees. This increases under-bonnet temperatures which does nothing for the ancillaries as well as increasing charge temperature. For every 10 degrees that you can reduce the charge temp by you will see approx 3% increase in power. It is therefore well worth fitting an aftermarket oil cooler (£120).

These fit very neatly below the charger and could knock as much as 30 degrees off the oil temp. They fit via a thermostatically controlled sandwich plate that sits between the stock water/oil heat exchanger and the oil filter. These heat exchangers are prone to leaks (leading to water in your oil) and so people often remove them when fitting a stand alone cooler. If you do not remove them then you will need to use Mk2 GTi oil filters as opposed to G60 ones in future as the G60 ones have a nut on them that fouls the front cross-member when a sandwich plate is in place. Internally there is no difference between the filters.

General Running

The ECU takes information from a number of sensors in order to apply the fuel and timing settings to the engine. If any of these sensors are not working properly then the ECU will get an incorrect signal and the engine will not run properly. It is possible to check a number of these sensors and connections to help diagnose any running problems you may be experiencing.

ECU relays

The ECU relays on these cars are notorious for failing and although not an expensive failure it is one that will leave you stranded. It is prudent to obtain a brand new replacement relay from VW (approx £10) and to keep it in your glovebox. You want VW part number 165906381 and it lives in position No. 3 on the relay board (assuming No. 1 is top left). It will have a No. 30 or 32 on top of it. If it is black and made in Malaysia or the Philippines then it falls into the unreliable category. VW uprated these and new ones come in a light grey case.

MAP Sensor

The ECU contains a MAP sensor (Manifold Absolute Pressure), which it uses to determine engine load. This is fed by a black vacuum hose running from the manifold to the ECU. It is essential that this hose is in good shape, a lot of G60 running issues are down to this hose. Examine it for wear and if in doubt replace it as it is a cheap part. Be warned however, that it must be exactly 1m long so don’t go trimming the end off and reattaching it to the ECU!

Water Temp Sensor

There are two water temp sensors that sit on top of the casting that joins the rad top hose to the front of the block. The blue one provides a signal to the ECU whilst the black one is the sender for the dashboard gauge. With the engine at operating temperature disconnect the plug to the blue one. You should hear the engine note change, this indicates that the sensor is working. If it does not change, then the sensor needs replacing (about £5 from VW).

Fuel rail

The ECU must detect 12v across the fuel rail for it to operate properly. If the voltage drops below this then the ECU dumps extra fuel at the top of the rev range to prevent the engine from running lean. This will not affect performance in a massive way but won’t do your fuel economy any favours. With the engine running check the voltage using a multimeter. If it is above 12v switch all the electrics on (lights, fan, indicators, demister, stereo) and check again. If the voltage has now dropped below 12v then the alternator may well be getting a bit tired. VW charge about £100 for alternator (exchange), which, is cheaper that we could find them elsewhere, although if you can live without the car for a few days most auto electricians can overhaul them for a lot less.

Knock Sensor

This is basically a microphone that bolts to the block and detects pinking by listening for sounds waves of a specific frequency. When the knock sensor detects pinking the ECU is then able to retard the ignition timing accordingly. The signal is passed from the sensor to the loom via a shielded cable. It is essential that this cable is in excellent condition, if there are any nicks or tears in the cable then the knock sensor should be replaced (£45, VW only part). It is simple to replace and merely plugs into the loom at one end (the plug can be found near the fan and distributor) and bolts onto the block at the other. It must be torqued up to 15ft/lbs, any more or less and it will be under or over sensitive.

Hall Senders

As with most other distributor-based VW ignition systems the Hall senders are prone to failure. It lives in the distributor and uses a magnet to determine the position of the distributor before feeding a signal back to the ECU. Sadly the hall senders are not worth servicing (very fiddly and not that cheap) and so it is a new distributor job. Your dealership is usually the best source for a replacement and they even come with a new arm and cap!

The Hall sender usually announces its imminent failure with some very rough running (random misfires) interspersed with backfires and subsequently (and very soon after) the engine dies. The symptoms are usually worse when the engine is hot. VW used a number of very slightly different distributors on the same car but ultimately you want part number 037905237X which replaced 3 other similar part numbers.

Spark Plugs

The spark plugs are meant to last about 40k but it is worth checking them for condition. They should only be replaced with the appropriate platinum tipped Bosch plugs. For a standard or modestly tuned G60 you want W6DPO plugs and for a highly tuned lump use W5DPO (as fitted to the G40) as they run slightly cooler than the 6s.


As mentioned earlier any reduction in charge temperature leads to an increase in power [due to cooler air being denser and more oxygen rich]. Also, the cooler the charge the less pinking will occur allowing the ECU to run more timing advance. The G60 supercharged engine comes complete with an intercooler (i.e. an air to air heat exchanger) to cool ‘charged’ air but the format of this unit varies from model to model.

The Corrado intercooler is a very small unit which is of limited effectiveness. If you can’t afford to upgrade, it is worth removing it and cleaning it very thoroughly as this will improve its efficiency. It draws air from behind the bumper and lives just in front of the nearside wheel arch. The internals are likely to be coated with a good misting of oil and the outside covered in road kill (bugs and grime). It should be filled with a decent detergent (Persil or de-greaser etc) and allowed to soak before being thoroughly flushed. If you have the patience it is also worth carefully straightening the cooling fins with a flat blade screwdriver as well as removing any gunk from the outside of the unit.

If you can afford it (£500) then the intercooler from a Golf G60 is a direct swap onto the Corrado. It is much bigger and sits in front of the rad. You will need all the golf pipework as well but it will make a massive difference. Stay clear of coolers from Golfs with air con as these sit on top of the engine and draw hot air from around the engine making them even more useless than the standard Corrado unit. Aftermarket companies will also be able to make bespoke coolers and supply all the relevant pipework and these are likely to be a bit cheaper but tend to require some cutting to make them fit to the car.



An alternative to a larger intercooler is to fit a charge cooler (£400-500). A charge cooler is a water to air heat exchanger and size for size is more efficient than an intercooler. The main part of a chargecooler can sit pretty much anywhere whereas an intercooler must be mounted in the air stream. This makes chargecoolers easier to package in the engine bay and popular for conversions such as Mk1 G60s. The charge cooler then requires a water resevoir and a small radiator to cool the water heated by the charged air as well as plumbing and a pump to link the two.

Although efficient, it is obviously a more complicated solution so if you have the space I would go for an intercooler. The final charge cooling option which can be run in conjunction with an IC or CC is water injection (£250 – £500). This system sprays a fine mist of water into the airstream before is goes into the engine thus cooling it. The spray obviously needs to be fitted before any inlet air temp sensors. Such a system requires a pump and reservoir but can be fitted very discretely. It usually operates from a throttle switch to only activate at full throttle otherwise the reservoir would continually need refilling. Generally such a system is used in conjunction with an IC or CC as is used on highly tuned cars to prevent pinking under full load/boost.

G60 Idle Stabilisation Valve [ISV]

Idle Valve – The G60 uses an electronically controlled idle valve that bypasses the closed throttle to feed a controlled amount of air into the engine and sustain an idle. These often become sticky and work erratically (causing a hunting idle) or cease working at all. In most cases that can be fixed with a quick clean. Remove them from the car and soak in petrol or carb/injector cleaner before rinsing, drying and refitting. Check also the pipes to and from the valve for air leaks as these can also cause idle problems.

The idle valve also acts as a boost limiting system. When boost reaches a certain level the ECU sends a signal to the valve to open a solenoid that bleeds excess boost out of the system and into the boost-return pipework. Some people have fitted check valves to prevent this excess boost being bled off. These should probably be removed as not only does the ECU open the valve to bleed the excess boost off but it stops retarding the timing. If you retain this extra boost the timing will be too far advanced as the check valve makes no adjustment to the timing for the extra boost and thus the engine is likely to pink.

Less specific to the G60 but worth highlighting nonetheless is the cam belt tensioner. These often seize up on older high-mileage cars causing premature wear and thus failure of the belt. They only cost £10 so if it looks tired or squeals then change it. It should always be changed with the cam belt as a matter of course but this does not always get done. Remember that the belt should be tensioned so that you can twist the longest unsupported run of the belt through 90 degrees… more….and no less!

Your Best 2013 Source List of Free Dropshipping Companies Online

Your Best 2013 Source List of Free Dropshipping Companies Online. All in one place, easy and fast!

Manitowoc, Wisconsin United States
Instant access to the largest, most thematically diverse collection of painted art glass gifts and decor ever offered. We also carry Military Emblems and Wood Carvings. MADE IN AMERICA!!! Silver Creek Industries creates painted art glass,using a single pane of glass and lacquer-based stains. It lo
hasstore.gif  2.
Bushnell, Florida United States is designed to help you make money without having the risk of investing in inventory. Our website is designed so that you can easily sell our products on websites, eBay, Amazon, etc. We will ship your order within 1 business day and usually the same day.
hasstore.gif  3. Bellissimo Hand Painted Gifts
Palm Beach Gardens, Florida United States
Buy wholesale direct from the manufacturer of America’s Premier Hand Painted Glassware. 1000 affordably priced glass gifts exquisitely hand painted in 50 celebratory designs. Unique stemware, picture frames, plates, candle holders, ornaments etc. Also Wholesale Drop Ship Available. Made in USA! 1-800-377-6407
hasstore.gif  4. BelowWholesaleSunglasses – Need CHEAP sunglasses??
Sarasota, Florida United States
Need CHEAP Sunglasses? DUDE, We Got What You Want in 2013! BULK Pricing | FREE SHIPPING | No Hassles We Got Your Style! 855-999-9129
hasstore.gif  5. H & J Liquidators and Closeouts, Inc.
Des Plaines, Illinois United States
We are in the wholesale closeout, surplus, liquidation business where we buy and sell almost anything such as novelties, toys, jewelry and much more general merchandise (excluding industrial supplies and heavy machinery) at prices below wholesale. Our customer base includes dollar store vendors to m
hasstore.gif  6. | YMC Import & Export Corp.
Los Angeles, California United States
We specialize in Die Cast collectibles, Toys, Novelty, General Merchandise, Gifts, Seasonal Items.Die Cast -Maisto Muscle Machines Motor Max Sunny Side Kinsmart Toys – Dolls Radio Control Educational Beauty Sets General Merch. – Baby Items Locks Calculators Novelties – Key Chains, Novelty Dolls & more.
hasstore.gif  7. GLOBAL CRAFTS – Handmade Artisan Gifts
Edgewater, Florida United States
FIRST ORDER DISCOUNT – 10% OFF. Stand out with our range of over 1000 Unique Handmade Artisan Gifts Jewelry and Accessory Products. No Minimum Order. Drop Shipping Available. Strictly Wholesale! End of Year Sale Now On! 1.866.468.3438 –
hasstore.gif  8. EZ Wholesaler
Clearwater, Florida United States
“Where The World’s Favorite Retailers & Etailers Shop” since 1993. We feature Guaranteed Manufacturer Direct Pricing in Niches Such As: As Seen On TV Products, Security & Defense, Fitness/Exercise, Housewares, Lawn & Garden..Too Much To List.. Come Visit… Dropshipping Available!!
West Newbury, Massachusetts United States
Huge selection of sterling jewelry. Great products, great prices, great novelty jewelry, fashion accessories, great service. Drop-Shipping only $2.00 per pkg plus shipping.
hasstore.gif  10.
Santa Ana, California United States
Wholesale T-Shirt, sweatshirt, bags, tote bags, drawstring bags, promotional bags and more.
hasstore.gif  11. Belly Scarf
Tampa, Florida United States
Wholesale Belly Dancing Hip Scarves, Costumes, Accessories, DVDs and more. Belly Dance Hip Scarves are the hottest accessories for Belly dancing and Zumba Fitness workouts. Zumba Wholesale cargo pants, racer back shirts and wholesale belly dancing scarves for $5.50 each. Free Shipping Hip Sc
hasstore.gif  12. Your Wholesale Dropship Source
charlotte, North Carolina United States
Visit our blog at Looking for additional income? Start your online business today. Make as much as 80% profit. One touch “push to ebay” feature, automated websites preloaded with products, datafeeds to upload products to shopping search engines. Wholesaler & Dropshippe
hasstore.gif  13. EOS Trading Corp (dba Sale Stores)
Miami, Florida United States
Tel 305-652-0442. Fax 305-675-6412. We sell Consumer Electronics, Computer Hardware & Supplies, Phones and Communications Equipment, Appliances, Office Equipment & Supplies, Projectors & Cases, Security Systems, Office Furniture. Great General Merchandise. Etailers, Wholesalers and Exporters. Serving our customers since 1990. We offer Dropshipping.
hasstore.gif  14. Wholesale Blank Clothes
Corona, California United States
*** Blank Clothing Made Specifically For Screen Printing, Embroidery, Embellishment, and Sublimation. Infant, Toddler, Junior, and Adult Clothing. Bulk Discounts, Free Shipping, and Custom Manufacturing Available. No Minimums to Order. Free Drop Shipping. Call Us Today (800) 707-9692. ***
15. Real Action Paintball
San Jose, California United States
Manufacturer & Distributor of Military, Law Enforcement & Paintball Gaming Equipment. OVER 1000 PRODUCTS IN STOCK – WE DROPSHIP!!!

hasstore.gif  16. CUTTING EDGE PRODUCTS, INC.
Winterville, North Carolina United States
For over 20 years we have manufactured the world’s top selling brand: Streetwise Stun Guns. JUST ARRIVED: 7,500,000 Stun guns! We carry 40 Stun Gun models, Spy Cameras, Pepper Spray (20 models), Can Safes, Alarms, Cameras and Dummy Cameras. LOWEST WHOLESALE PRICES. WE DROP SHIP.
17. and
Pompton Plains, New Jersey United States
The #1 Wholesale Car and Boat Cover drop shipper! We import and distribute our own line of covers for just about anything on wheels or water. We also carry a full line of car and boat cover accessories to offer your customers! Contact us now and get started with a real money making drop ship program
hasstore.gif  18. Wholesale Automotive Keychains
Minneapolis, Minnesota United States
Distributor Of Licensed Keychains. We carry Keychains Licensed For Automotive Companies, NFL, MLB, NBA, NHL, NCAA & NASCAR. We Have Dropshipping Available. Give Us A Call 952-935-4192. Or Visit Us Today.
19. MCS Depot Wholesale Warehouse
Toronto, Ontario Canada
We dropship from our warehouse across the USA and Canada. Huge inventory of Hand Tools, Power Tools, Lawn & Garden Supplies and more. We provide quality products and selection at low prices. See our web site for details and DEALS! Email us at
hasstore.gif  20. New Fresco’s
Clinton, Connecticut United States
New Frescos is a Wholesaler that specializes in Wholesale Costume Jewelry, Body Jewelry, Wholesale Sterling Silver 925 Earrings, Rings, Poison Rings, Spinner Rings, Kama Sutra Jewelry, Pendants Necklaces, Religious Jewelry, Fashion Accessories and Pewter Figurines.
hasstore.gif  21.
Plantation, Florida United States
Dropship and Wholesale handbags, wallets and accessories. A great way to have an easy and profitable business. Here you will buy at low wholesale price. With the right products you could have a fully displayed show case where most of the sales are done for you! Call us- 1-917-388-1701
hasstore.gif  22. Feza Cell LLC
Clifton, New Jersey United States
Feza Cell LLC was incorporated in 2010 to become an industry leader in the retail and wholesales of Cell Phone Accessories. Our product range include Protective Cases, Silicon Cases, LCD Screen Protectors, Hybrid Cases, Armor Cases, Shell Holsters; Headsets; iPhone, iPad and iPod Accessories, Tablets.
hasstore.gif  23. Sunrise Wholesale Merchandise Dropshipper
Los Angeles, California United States
We dropship! Thousands of wholesale products, including brand name electronics, home & garden decor, toys, candles, kitchen, office, tools & more. Resell for big profits – make money today!
hasstore.gif  24. VK Wholesale
Chicago, Illinois United States
VK Wholesale offers wide range of C-Store items including General Merchandise, Energy Supplements, Digital Scales, OTC Medicine, Lighters, E-Cigarettes, Automotive Products, Tobacco Accessories & More. FREE SHIPPING on large orders. Call 773-853-0734 for more info..
hasstore.gif  25. Mingzhou Oriental Imports, Ltd.
Cincinnati, Ohio United States
We are an importer & wholesaler in the US specializing in oriental furniture, home decor, fine gifts, figurines, wood, crystals, souvenirs, pewter, jewelry, ceramics, antiques, general gifts, glass, arts & collectibles. Experience the eastern culture, we drop ship. Visit Us At
hasstore.gif  26. Elms Gifts Wholesale
North Port, Florida United States
We have a wide variety of Unique Gifts, Licensed Collectibles, Home & Garden Decor, and so much more. No minimum order. No membership fees. We ship worldwide. FREE DROPSHIP!!
hasstore.gif  27. Four Seasons General Merchandise
Los Angeles, California United States
Largest Wholesaler Of General Merchandise, Dollar Store and Discount Items, Party Supplies, Bath Products, Kitchenware, Health & Beauty, Hardware, Novelties, Gifts, Stationery, Figurines, Baby Items, Toys & more. Over 10,000 items in 50 Categories! Inventory updated daily! Disney & 50+ brands.
hasstore.gif  28. Eastwind Wholesale Gift Distributors
Portland, Oregon United States
Wholesale gifts, home decor, bath and body, candles, Christian gifts, cool figurines, incense, fashion jewelry, home accessories, lanterns, seasonal merchandise and so much more! Discounts every day! No minimum. Order Toll Free: 1.855.EWGIFTS
hasstore.gif  29. All Power Supply Inc.
Pompano Beach, Florida United States
We are a wholesale and drop-ship distributor. Manufacturers we represent include Black & Decker, Magnum Energy, Xantrex, Vector, Thor, Convoy Safety, Peak Automotive, Smart Straps, NOCO-Genius, C-TEK, and Clore Automotive etc. All Power Supply offers sales, logistics and customer service.
hasstore.gif  30. American Eastern Traders, Inc.
Piscataway, New Jersey United States
NO DROP SHIP FEES! We distribute product for the BIKE and BIKER: boot straps, patches, hair wrapter, KRUZER KADDY… We promote Made in the US: seat pads, vest extenders, ear plugs, saddlebag security products, wallets. Open 24/7 @ Call us NOW 1 888 72 BIKER (24537).

Cool Car Accessories – Turn Your Car Into A Really Heaven

There is no doubt that every car owner want to look for a way to make his car stand out above the reset. There is a wide array of Car Accessories that can help you accomplish this goal and turn your car into the eye candy that have desires. You can spend or invest as much as you want to make your car comfortable and glamorous. Nowadays, with the help of Internet, it’s easier than ever to find the suitable Car accessories. Here are some cool car accessories you should have.

Car Accessories

Anti Theft Car Equipment

Anti-theft devices include electronic locks and mechanical anti-theft lock. The two are often used in conjunction. Since many domestic models are not the original anti-theft, anti-theft devices or provide the original function is imperfect, for example, there is no alarm, remote control, failure, etc. So most of the required installation of electronic security. No group: anti-theft feature original sound of the car, purchase a free gift. Tips to save money: the requirements for safe and reliable, electronic anti-theft device of choice be sure to choose quality and reliable manufacturers brands. As for the function, if you want to save money, in fact, the simplest choice is enough. For example, two-way alarm, remote control, display and other functions more than doubled expensive, but the utility is not significant. As for the mechanical anti-theft devices, in fact, the most simple and cheap to buy for use with it.

Reversing Radar

Reversing radar is not just for the novice, in fact, opened a lot of veterans for years when reversing the car often Mian Bude has some virtually scratch, this time reversing radar can come in handy. Even the cheapest can not accurately display parking sensor, the sound drops in frequently, you will also improve the reverse of the attention. Rely on parking sensor reduces the frequency of repair, which has always been a big saving. No group: the original function with a reversing radar models, reversing technology has the full confidence of the owners. Tips to save money: parking sensor manufacturers have to choose some products, a small number of the error rate. In fact, the four general functions reversing radar if you cooked it, sufficient to meet the reverse, and the price is very cheap. Long out of a lot of new radar, even with the first function of the high-end photo radar, although certainly is easy to use, but the prices are high a lot, does not meet the principles of family money.

FM Transmitter

An FM transmitter is a portable device that plugs into the headphone jack or proprietary output port of a portable audio or video device, such as a portable media player, CD player, or satellite radio system. The sound is then broadcast through the transmitter, and plays through an FM broadcast band frequency. Purposes for an FM transmitter include playing music from a device through a car stereo, or any radio. It will definitely give you a calm and relaxing musical entertainment while driving. Also if you are stuck in traffic jams you can listen to your favorite FM radio stations and also talk to your favorite RJ’s while listening them live from your car.


You can have a GPS holder or a mobile phone holder so that you can sit and just drive your car without worrying where your mobile phone is and these days you have mobile charger included in the holder mount so you just have to put your phone their and it will charge automatically. Let the GPS to guide your direction while on travel. This comes with a Turn-By-Turn Voice Navigation that gives a voice instruction of your direction and syncs with the car lights. It also helps you locate local gas stations, hotels and restaurants easily.

Car accessories may be the icing on the cake for your vehicle experience. You can add a personal element to your Car and this can make your Car stand out above the other Cars on the road in your area.

TrueCar vs. DealerPinch

Now more than ever, car buyers are looking for a no hassle, transparent, honest car buying experience. Buyers no longer want to deal with the back and forth haggling with salesmen only to leave without making a deal or get roped into paying more than they expected.

Founded in 2005,’s primary goal is to assist consumers during the car buying process by eliminating the “negotiation and haggling of price.” Buyers are able to view what other people in their area have paid for the same make and model, which they refer to as “upfront pricing information.” The process allows buyers to find the make and model they want, choose a price they feel is fair and print out a “Guaranteed Savings Certificate” to apply toward the purchase of the specified make and model of car at a “Certified TrueCar Dealer.”

In the eyes of a consumer, this process would seem like the easiest and most foolproof way to buy a car from the safety of their home, but there have been some instances found in that the process may not be as simple and easy as it seems. Through consumer reviews and personal experiences it was found that:

  • may not provide any guarantee that their Certified Dealerships will honor the quote provided to their consumers. This completely negates their claim to eliminate “negotiation and haggling of pricing,” leaving buyers stranded and price haggling as if they had initially walked into the dealership.
  • may not be completely anonymous. They require consumers to input their name, phone number and email before they receive their Guaranteed Savings Certificate. That information is sent to the dealerships associated with the criteria entered, thereby  leaving the consumer with tons of emails and phone calls.
  • only works if the dealership has the specific make and model in stock. Many of the dealerships associated with may use the site to generate leads and bring in potential buyers. This is, in a sense, false advertising. The pricing provided by the website brings in customers, however, when the customer arrives, they may be informed that the dealership does not have “that specific car” and are then put into a situation where they end up paying more than promised.

In comparison, the new company DealerPinch.comallows consumers to compare and buy cars in a similar fashion – but in a much better way. provides a unique process to assist customers to make a smart offer on the car you want while protecting their identity and their credit with TransUnion and ACRAnet. Consumers are provided with comprehensive data and reviews to assist in making an educated decision. All without the hassle of salesmen.

The process is simple and completely anonymous. Clients begin the process by choosing a make or model of car. Buyers then build their vehicle, selecting as many of the available options they want. The MSRP is subsequently presented and the client now has the option to make an offer. Unlike, allows the buyer to choose a down payment and their monthly payment or their desired price for the car all on their own! Simply plug in what you want to pay and let the dealerships work for you. Dealerships throughout the area receive the offer and either accept or counter within hours. When the deal is accepted, sign your finance documents and drive away in your new car. It’s that easy.

Not only is this car buying process easy, it gives you peace of mind. Here are just a few great attributes brought to consumers by this company:

  • saves time. Buyers research and build their new car online, are able to approach multiple dealers simultaneously and get responses within a few hours.
  • saves money. Select your terms and your price. You say how much you want to pay!
  • Dealerpinch.comis hassle free. Shop privately and anonymously, avoiding haggling and pressure from salesmen.


With that being said, that next time you are in the market for a new car, where are you going to go for a hassle free and honest experience?  Avoid possible bait and switches and head over to!  Your Car. Your Price.

What to Look For When Hiring a Wedding Car?

Your wedding day is certainly the most important day in your life, and you want it to pass flawlessly, without any blunders. Hiring the finest wedding car for this day is as critical as selecting the perfect dress. Here are some tips to help you find the ideal wedding car hire in Manchester.

Consider the Overall Journey

It is imperative to first think of the pick-up points as well as the people who will be in the vehicles. How many flower girls, pageboys, and bridesmaids will you have? This is to determine the exact number of vehicles you will need.

If you are considering hiring a traditional car, you can pick a classic seven seat Daimler Limousine, for example. You can also ask a relative or friend to help you with any bulk luggage as not all vehicles have adequate storage space.

Think of the Car Colour and Model

Nowadays, wedding car hire firms ensure that they list all cars they have in their list of rentals. If you want to hire a wedding car for the bride-to-be, you should keep in mind her favourite car model and colour. You can also consider hiring a car that compliments your wedding venue’s theme. If the theme colour of the wedding is blue, for instance, then you should book a car in the colour that compliments that theme.


Consider Being Classic

Luxury radiates from quite a few models that include the classic limousine. Most people prefer these models over any other car as wedding transportation. Other than the classic limousine, you can also shop around for cars that are regarded as ‘sophisticated’ or ‘elegant’.

Examine the Vehicle

Some vehicle models are used regularly with minimal maintenance. Hence, they are fragile and unworthy of hire. It is advisable to always examine the car before making any payments. A wedding car is a reflection of affluence and class; you cannot afford to choose the wrong vehicle.

Compare the Options

There are many wedding car hire companies out there. Thus, you need to compare their charges and offerings. With the stiff competition, you will have a wide range of options with regard to the major models in wedding cars, from which you can make your choice. You can shop around for different companies, noting down their offers. Afterwards, you will compare the mdels and select the ideal model that fits your needs and budget.

Check for Insurance and Security

You need to look for a well-established wedding car hire company with fully licensed chauffeurs. Also, ensure that the firm has public liability insurance. Be careful not to select one of those hobbyist wedding operators out there, who don’t operate as proper businesses.

Survey the Vehicle Interior

Wedding cars ought to have a sparkling, comfortable and magnificent interior for your relaxation while enjoying the ride. There are wedding hire companies that provide extra services and accompaniments like customised ribbons with the wedding couple’s names, soft drinks, water, as well as free champagne. Take this into consideration when looking for a wedding car hire.


The wedding day is naturally the most cherished day in a person’s life. This is why everyone would go to great lengths to make the day as great as they can possibly imagine, including hiring the finest wedding transport. To those looking for wedding car hire in Manchester, you have no cause to worry. Opulence Executive Travels, a Truly Great Luxury Car Company, offers a wide range of prestigious vehicles from which you can choose the one that perfectly fits your taste and budget.

New car quote: 10 factors to muse over while buying a car

If you are planning to buy a car, but are a tad confused as to how to go about it, then you are not alone! Most men struggle to zero down on the best vehicle. It all boils down to one’s requirements but budget and fuel-efficiency are also key issues worth pondering. Here are the 10 factors to consider while looking for a new car:

– Give yourself time: If you wake up one morning in a happy mood and decide to gift yourself a car on the same evening, then such hasty decisions could prove to be costly regrets. It is vital to give yourself some time and look for new car quote for several days before coming to any final decision.

– Compare cars: Unless you are a technician for cars, you won’t have fool-proof knowledge about different vehicles. Don’t just get lured by flashy designs and enviable looks! Specifications and inner features are of greater significance. So, make sure to compare the different models on the net. Most websites not just offer free car quote, but also give you tools to make quick comparison.

– Look for the best financing deals: If you need car financing, then it is important that you spend a good amount of time in finding the best deals.

– Keep an eye open for seasonal or festive offers: Quite often, various dealers run special discounts or offers during festive days or on other special occasions. If you can buy a car at that time, you can save a few more bucks.
– Take personal help: If you are unable to figure out the significance of the technical specifications and need some personal help, then you can ask for help from a friend or a professional.

– Figuring out your requirement: When you are looking for new car quote, it will be vital that you have a predefined budget in your mind. Buying something way below or beyond your budget is not recommended.

– Fuel efficiency: If you are going to use your car a lot for daily commuting, then it will be crucial that you go for a vehicle which is fuel-efficient. That would help you save a lot on your monthly fuel expenses.

– Take a drive: There is nothing like taking a test drive to get a feel of the car. Sometimes, we are not quite sure whether the car is good enough or not. But once you try it out, you will get the answer instinctively.

– Insurance cost: If you don’t want your overheads to be on the higher side, then better opt for a cheaper car. Expensive cars also come with expensive insurance policies. So, you need to take that into account as well.

– Seating capacity: When you start looking for car quote, do keep in mind that you don’t want to end up buying a vehicle which is too small for your family or too big for your pockets. It is important to strike the right balance so that you get full satisfaction out of your purchase.

Car Engines

Engine Fundamentals

Atoms are the building blocks of the world. Any substance that is made up of only one kind of atom is called an element. Atoms of different elements can connect up with each other. This process is called a chemical reaction. The burning of fuel in an automobile engine is a chemical reaction. We normally refer to this chemical reaction as combustion. Automobile fuels are made up mostly of two elements hydrogen and carbon. These are therefore called hydrocarbons. During complete combustion in the engine, these two elements unite with a third element, the gas oxygen. Each oxygen atom connects up with two hydrogen atoms to form water. Each carbon atom connects up with two oxygen atoms to produce the gas carbon dioxide.

During combustion of gasoline in the engine, the burning gases get very hot. Their temperatures may go as high as 3319OC. This high temperature produces the pressure that makes the engine run and produce power.

With ideal, or perfect, combustion, all of the hydrogen and all of the carbon in the gasoline would combine with oxygen to form harmless water and carbon dioxide. However in the engine we do not get ideal combustion. Instead some of the gasoline does not burn. Also some only partly burns producing carbon monoxide. The unburned gasoline and partly burned gasoline cause pollution of the air as they exit through the tail pipe with the exhaust gases. This is the reason that cars are equipped with anti pollution devices called emission controls. These devices reduce the amount of pollutants coming from the engine.

The concepts involved are expansion of solids with heat. Any solid like the metal in an engine piston, expands and gets larger as its temperature increases. However the piston must be free to move up and down in the cylinder, even if it gets very hot. The piston is designed so that it does not expand too much. If it did it would stick in the cylinder and the engine would be damaged.
Fluids also expand with heat. The rules are pressure increases with increasing temperature. The rule works the other way too. The second rule is temperature increases with increasing pressure. Both rules are at work in the engine cylinders. First a mixture of air and gasoline vapor is taken into the cylinder. Then the piston moves up to compress this mixture. Compressing the mixture – increasing the pressure on the mixture – makes it hot. Next, the compressed mixture is ignited, or set on fire. It burns producing a very high temperature. The high temperature causes high pressure. The high pressure pushes the piston down. This motion is carried to the car wheels so that they turn and the car moves.
Other concepts involved are the thermometer, the thermostat, gravity, atmospheric pressure, vacuum and humidity. The atmospheric factors affecting combustion in the engine are changes in temperature, atmospheric pressure, and humidity. They affect the way the fuel burns and the power output of the engine. Accurate testing of the engines requires that all readings be corrected to account for temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity.

Internal Combustion Engines

Automotive engines are called internal combustion (IC) engines because the fuel that runs them is burned internally, or inside the engines. There are two types, reciprocating and rotary. By reciprocating we mean moving up and down or, back and forth. Almost all automotive engines are the reciprocating type. In these engines pistons move up and down, or reciprocate in cylinders. This type of engine is called a piston engine.

In this way scientific and engineering principles help us understand how engines work.

Advance Auto Parts Monster Jam: Daredevil Stunts of The World’S Fiercest Trucks

The monster truck event Advance Auto Parts Monster Jam is the greatest event not only within the US but also all over the world.

This Motorsports event is a tour as well as a magnificent TV show. This event consists of other numerous events and racing formats but fans mostly love side by side race and freestyle contest. It is the largest touring project so far people come all around the world to get dazzling entertainment of monster trucks.

It’s a great opportunity for the fans to watch this race live in front of their eyes on the spectacular course. The Monster Jam tour is not just limited to the US and the Canada but it also occurs outside the US and Canada and fans have been happy with this all around the world tour. The fans will get to see astounding racing competitions between the giant trucks with huge wheels.

Watching these dazzling trucks are something coming out of a comic book.  Daredevil stunts of monster trucks, their bugs like outlook and flashing lights are all what we call a treat. The race on the battlefield is not less than a storm with the entire car crushing action. Meeting favorite drivers and people behind the monster trucks and getting their autographs is what a true fan demand.

The world’s baddest and fiercest trucks  with all the heart taking action comes to the combat zone where they struggle with two types of racing one is side by side and other is freestyle. In the side by side race the trucks run side by side and the first truck which crosses the finish line first wins. In the freestyle monster truck drivers show off their amazing tricks. There is also a wheelie competition that comprises of hitting the ramp by the truck driver to jump as much high as possible while remaining perpendicular to the the track.

Advance Auto Parts Monster Jam is a must see event. The trucks involved in racing are huge and their race is not ordinary like other races. Roaring of engines, the sound of cars crashing and crunching metals take the audience into the destructive world. It’s a million dollar entertainment for young and old. Kids also participate in this race like anything. Fans can have the entertainment, enjoyment and real thrill of this race in person by laying hands on Advance Auto Parts Monster Jam.

Auto Parts: Buying High Performance Components Online

Autoparts offers a great range of auto parts online starting from parts of the engine to brake rotors, electrical parts, shocks or struts, chassis parts and many more. More than hundreds of choices of truck and cars parts await here in this complete online store.

Want to buy all the automobile parts online? Visited different websites and ordered product from that site but haven’t got satisfied with using that auto parts? If your answer is yes, then click on leading distributor or site of auto parts named From electrical parts to engine parts, you can easily get every single automobile part or items. In addition to wide varieties of inventory this site also offers nationwide guaranteed products.

You can easily search for Auto Parts, Auto Store, Foreign Auto Parts, Performance Auto parts, Domestic Auto parts and more. Every car, van, truck parts they provide have been passed with automotive industry standards so that one can easily get the finest quality of parts in extremely low prices.

Over 25 years, this site has become the most well known names in the Automobile parts online business store in the market. One also receive supreme customer service & support with the 30 days of money back return or guarantee on merchandise with an original manufacturer guarantee. Given below mentioned what you will find online at this site:
  • Brands – Goodyear, Bosch, Monroe, Ferodo, Timken, Catco & others
  • Product Categories – shocks, fuel pumps, brake parts, ignition parts, belts, starters, & hoses, etc.
  • Quick Search – To choose car manufacture year and car make.
  • Shipping – free UPS shipping
  • Email Signup – Can receive promotions and discounts delivered to you free.

One can also take advantage of online coupon code and purchase the product with a huge discount price.

Advantages of Recycling Auto Parts

Have you ever had an old car that you could no longer use or sell? How about a car that has been damaged in an accident and is beyond repair?  What should you do with these automobiles? You will find that a business involved in auto salvage in Dover, PA, or close to you, will provide advantages to both you and the environment. An auto salvage yard works to recycle as much of an automobile as they can. There are definitely benefits to the environment in this process as well as direct benefits to your wallet.

Environmental Benefits of Recycling Auto Parts

  • Almost all vehicles that are manufactured today, anywhere in the world, have steel frames. If those frames alone were recycled when they were no longer of use, just imagine the amount of iron that would be saved for the future. Every ton of steel that is recycled saves almost one-half ton of coal that would be used in the iron refining process. Saving coal helps to save natural resources, time, energy, and money. There are also many other materials and fluids that can be recycled and help to reduce the large amount of waste in landfills. This process can also help dangerous chemicals from seeping into groundwater.
  • The recycling process for steel and other materials helps to reduce the need to manufacture new metals. By doing this, greenhouse gases are reduced. It is much easier and more efficient to melt steel and form a new product than it is to create it in the first place. Coal-burning plants are one of the biggest contributors to greenhouse gases, so any available reduction in the steel-producing process can help.
  • You have probably heard the words “reduce, reuse, recycle.” If you try to live by this mantra, you will seek out businesses that do so as well. If you can find a part that can be reused, you will find that you are also going to save money over purchasing something new. If you are able to encourage others to do so as well, businesses will work to provide these options. Those that are not directly in the salvage business will reach out to suppliers that offer these recycled items. Again this helps to protect the environment while providing a very usable item at a lower cost.
  • You can recycle your own automobile to earn extra cash. When you find that you are done with a car, you can take it to a salvage yard and they will buy it from you. This provides some value back to you without a great deal of effort. The salvage company will then work through the vehicle to harvest parts to sell and send other items off to be recycled further. This has long-term benefits for everyone. Just imagine the amount of good that could be done for the environment if just one automobile was recycled by every single driver in America. The positive results could be astounding.

You will want to consider using recycled auto parts in any repair you have to make. You will want to seek out a mechanic that is active in this practice. This will often save you money for the overall work that needs to be done. There is absolutely nothing wrong with using a perfectly good part from a car that has been salvaged. You will find that you will also be supporting a small business when you purchase from an organization that works in auto salvage in Dover, PA, or in your local town. There are many benefits, on both a small and large scale, if you participate in this practice.